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ANT100Y1 October 6 Notes.doc

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Shawn Lehman

Week 4 Notes: ANT100Y1. Notes by Sunny-Sum Chen Last Week Example Question: Recall _________________ is a type of ribonucleic acid that is used in the cell to copy the DNA code for use in protein synthesis. a. Mitochondria b. DNA c. Y-chromosome d. mRNA e. tRNA Example Question: Applied The result of ___________ is that genetic information encoded in DNA is transferred to the ________. a. Transcription, RNA b. Translation, TTC c. Meoisis, tRNA d. Mitosis, zerg hive e. None of the above ANT100Y1 Lecture 3: Primate Behaviour and Ecology Lecture Goals • How primates differ from other mammals • Basic taxonomic characters of living primates • Primate ecology and sociality • Main conservation issue for primates Primatologists at UT • Michael Schillaci (UTSC): anthropological primatology, bioarchaeology, public health • Joyce Parga (UTSC): • Shawn Lehman (St. George) Primates in the Media! (lots of pics) They are not pets or actors! • Example: Video (primates are to be kept in the wild, not as pets) Cadbury milk commercial Primate Characteristics (e.g. Sammy and Dr. Lehman) • Primates are mammals (warm-blooded, having hair and feeding milk to its young). • Primates differ from most mammals by having: o Grasping hands and feet, o Collarbone (clavicle), o Radius and ulna (bones in your wrist, elbow), & o Forward facing eyes and stereoscopic vision. Primate Activity Patterns • Nocturnal: active at night • Diurnal: active during day • Crepuscular: active at dawn & dusk • Cathemeral: active any time of day or night Primate Taxonomy (refer to the textbook chapter 4) • Focusing on the Strepsirhines and the others Strepsirhine Characteristics • Dental tooth comb. • Moist rhinarium. • Unfused mandibular and frontal synphases. • Tapetum lucidum (series of cells in the back of the eye, acting like a reflector, refocus light) • Postorbitol bar. (the eyeball can be seen through the skull, no bony protrusions) • Two superfamilies: Lemuroidea and Lorisoidea Two Strepsirhine Superfamilies • Lemuroidea o Madagascar and Comoro islands. (Comoro islands are right to the northwest to Madagascar) o Arboreal quadrupeds and leapers; some are partially terrestrial o Many small-bodied species are nocturnal. o Female dominance. o Varied diet. • Lorisoidea o Found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia o Lorises and galagos o Arboreal quadrupeds o Nocturnal. o Varied diet. Lemur Sounds & Movements (need audio recording) Lemurs Endemic to Madagascar (very rare species Sifaka, located at small section north Madagascar) Lorises and Galagos (only toxic mammal a loris mother, coating its young to prevent it being food) Haplorhine Characteristics • Dry nose • Retinal forea. • Postorbital closure. • Fused mandibular and frontal symphases (cf. [compared with, alternatively] Tarsiers). • Three infraorders: Tarsiiformes, Platyrrhini, and Catarrhini. Tarsiiformes • One genus (Tarsius) • Found in Southeast Asia (e.g., Philippines) • Small body size (80-130g) • Relatively large eyes, with fused lower leg bones • Entirely faunivorous. (animal flesh eater) Platyrrhines (Neotropical Monkeys) • Central and South America • Body mass: 110 g- 11.4 kg • Cebidae, Atelidae, and Callitrichidae • Prehensile tails in few species. • Most entirely arboreal (up in the trees) Catarrhines (Old World Monkeys & Apes) • Africa, Asia, and Southeast Asia. • Body mass: 1 kg - 175 kg • Cercopithecidae, Hylobatidae, and Hominidae • Variety of diets, social organizations, and adaptations Human be
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