Week 4 Notes: ANT100Y1. Notes by Sunny-Sum Chen
Last Week Example Question: Recall
_________________ is a type of ribonucleic acid that is used in the cell to copy the DNA code
for use in protein synthesis.
Example Question: Applied
The result of ___________ is that genetic information encoded in DNA is transferred to the
a. Transcription, RNA
b. Translation, TTC
c. Meoisis, tRNA
d. Mitosis, zerg hive
e. None of the above
ANT100Y1 Lecture 3: Primate Behaviour and
• How primates differ from other mammals
• Basic taxonomic characters of living primates
• Primate ecology and sociality
• Main conservation issue for primates
Primatologists at UT
• Michael Schillaci (UTSC): anthropological primatology, bioarchaeology, public health
• Joyce Parga (UTSC):
• Shawn Lehman (St. George)
Primates in the Media! (lots of pics) They are not pets or actors!
• Example: Video (primates are to be kept in the wild, not as pets) Cadbury milk
Primate Characteristics (e.g. Sammy and Dr. Lehman)
Primates are mammals (warm-blooded, having hair and feeding milk to its young).
• Primates differ from most mammals by having:
o Grasping hands and feet,
o Collarbone (clavicle),
o Radius and ulna (bones in your wrist, elbow), &
Forward facing eyes and stereoscopic vision.
Primate Activity Patterns
• Nocturnal: active at night
• Diurnal: active during day • Crepuscular: active at dawn & dusk
• Cathemeral: active any time of day or night
Primate Taxonomy (refer to the textbook chapter 4)
• Focusing on the Strepsirhines and the others
• Dental tooth comb.
• Moist rhinarium.
• Unfused mandibular and frontal synphases.
• Tapetum lucidum (series of cells in the back of the eye, acting like a reflector, refocus
• Postorbitol bar. (the eyeball can be seen through the skull, no bony protrusions)
Two superfamilies: Lemuroidea and Lorisoidea
Two Strepsirhine Superfamilies
o Madagascar and Comoro islands. (Comoro islands are right to the northwest to
o Arboreal quadrupeds and leapers; some are partially terrestrial
o Many small-bodied species are nocturnal.
o Female dominance.
o Found throughout sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia
o Lorises and galagos
o Arboreal quadrupeds
o Varied diet.
Lemur Sounds & Movements (need audio recording)
Lemurs Endemic to Madagascar (very rare species Sifaka, located at small section north
Lorises and Galagos (only toxic mammal a loris mother, coating its young to prevent it
• Dry nose
• Retinal forea.
• Fused mandibular and frontal symphases (cf. [compared with, alternatively] Tarsiers).
• Three infraorders: Tarsiiformes, Platyrrhini, and Catarrhini.
• One genus (Tarsius)
• Found in Southeast Asia (e.g., Philippines)
• Small body size (80-130g) • Relatively large eyes, with fused lower leg bones
• Entirely faunivorous. (animal flesh eater)
Platyrrhines (Neotropical Monkeys)
• Central and South America
• Body mass: 110 g- 11.4 kg
• Cebidae, Atelidae, and Callitrichidae
• Prehensile tails in few species.
Most entirely arboreal (up in the trees)
Catarrhines (Old World Monkeys & Apes)
• Africa, Asia, and Southeast Asia.
• Body mass: 1 kg - 175 kg
• Cercopithecidae, Hylobatidae, and Hominidae
• Variety of diets, social organizations, and adaptations