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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANT100Y1
Professor
Fukishima
Semester
Winter

Description
ANT101 Biology & Evolution A Brief History of the Development of Thought on Human Evolution 1. Origin Myths  All human cultures seem to have a theory of belief surrounding the origins of humans  Universal Explanations  Different across cultures  How humans came into existence  Relationship of humans & other animals  How humans are the ultimate products of creation 2. Fixity of Species  Species, once created can never change  Reflected powerful religious system in Europe  Accepted that all living things created by God 3. Great Chain of Being  Places humans within a continuum w/animals st th  1 proposed by Aristotle in 4 century BC  All animals arranged in a hierarchy that progressed from simplest to most complex  Humans at top of hierarchy 4. Genus & Species • John Ray , 17 century  Coined species and genus and saw that certain plants & animals could be distinguished from other groups by their ability reproduce with one another and produce viable offspring  Placed reproductively isolated groups of individuals in a category called “species”  Recognized that some species shared similarities called “genus” 5. Systema Natura; Linnaeus, 1735  Classified living things into a hierarchy of taxonomic categories  Used binomial nomenclature  Standardized Ray’s species & genus, & added class & order  Creationist 6. Uniformitarianism: Lyell, 1833  Processes shaping the earth are the same today as they were in the past – uniform & continuous in nature  Time scale of the earth is in millions of years  Creationist  Recognized cyclic process of the Earth  Uniformitarianism  Processes shaping the earth are the same today as in the past 7. Survival of the Fittest; Malthus, 1798  Speculated that  Human populations multiply geometrically  Food resources grow arithmetically Therefore  Human populations will out grow resources unless there is a constant check to maintain a certain population size  Not everyone born can possible survive 8. Transformation; Lamarck, 1809  First to recognize that individuals can change over generations  Most influential pre-Darwin evolutionist  Did not adhere to the principles of fixity of species  Non-Darwinian features:  Inheritance of acquired characteristics  Acquired traits are passed on  Orthogenesis  Continuum of organisms from simple to complex (hierarchy)  Vitalism  self-motivation of evolution, behavior affects evolution 9. Darwinism  Charles Darwin, 1809-1882  Alfred Wallace, 1823-1913  selection is the key to evolution  Struggle for existence means that those individuals with favorable variations survive & reproduce more successfully Three observations 1. Biological variation within all species 2. All species capable of reproducing at a faster rate than food supply 3. Competition for limited resources Five Deductions 1. Individuals with favorable traits have an advantage 2. Traits are inherited and passed on to the next generation 3. Environment determines which traits are favorable 4. Over geological time, successful variations accumulate so that later generations may be distinct from their ancestors 5. Geographical isolation may lead to a new species Lecture 3: Modern Evolutionary Theory & Population Genetics Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)  Father of modern genetics  Provided mechanisms of natural selection through breeding experiments with peas  Determined how one trait passed from one generation to the next Principle of Segregation  Each unit pair separates in gamete production, so that each gamete contains 1 member of each pair. During fertilization individual units come together. Principle of Independent Assortment  Units (genes) that code for different traits assort independently of each other during gamete formation and recombine in offspring. Genes  Unit of heredity – controls trait  Portion of DNA molecule  Contains several base pairs to direct the production of a particular protein. Alleles  Alternate forms of a single gene Important to remember:  Natural Selection operates on the features in an individual,
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