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ANT100Y1 Final: Complete and Comprehensive 50 Page Final Exam Study Guide Fall 2015Premium

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Shawn Lehman
Study Guide

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ANT100 – Introduction to
Final Exam Study Guide
University of Toronto St. George – Fall 2015

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ANT100 - Lecture 2- Introduction to Evolution
Evolutionary anthropology is the application of modern evolutionary theory to studies of
morphology, ecology, and behaviour of human and non-human primates. There are 5 research
disciplines in evolutionary anthropology:
scientific study of non-human primates
primate anatomy, field studies of wild animals, primate psychology, etc.
primatologists seek to conserve primates in vanishing tropical ecosystems (e.g.
mouse lemurs in Madagascar)
multidisciplinary study of biological evolution of humans and non-human primates
advent of and changes in human cultural activities
evolutionary history of behaviour in human and non-human primates
Human Variation
spatial and temporal variations in human features
geographic and climatic variations in body size, skin colour, and eye colour
Medical anthropology
how social, environmental and biological factors influence health and illness of
individuals at the community, regional, national and global levels
Forensic Anthropology
focuses only on skeletal remains of humans
forensic anthropologists seek to determine the age, sex, stature, ancestry and
any trauma or disease of the deceased
Major questions about humans and our biology:
How does evolution work, and how does it apply to us? What are biological characteristics of
our species? What is physical record of our evolution (paleoanthropology)?
4 problems that limited the development of the theory of evolution
1. Lack of knowledge on age of the earth
in 1650: believed Earth was created on the afternoon of Oct. 23 4004 BC
accepted and believed to be true: church pronouncements held as secular and
religious law
2. Religious concept of fixity of species
in 8th century: scientists say living things created in present form
species, especially human species, were unchanging and distinct from each
3. Lack of scientific method
many ideas and concepts based on singular observations or fanciful accounts of
other travelers

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4. Religious notion of separate creation for humans and animals
religious doctrine that God created humans separate from and over animals
humans made in God's image, so more divinity than animals
processes that work on animals could not work on us "God-like" humans
Conducting Research
Evolutionary anthropologists conduct research using the scientific method
(use acronym to remember: Stanley gathered few trophies racing slow rabbits)
1. State the problem
2. Gather the information
3. Form the hypothesis
4. Test the hypothesis
5. Record and analyze data
6. State the conclusion
7. Repeat the work
Carolus Linnaeus (Karl von Linne, 1707-1778)
created first comprehensive classification system of living things
named each living thing as a separate species
on basis of physical resemblances, species grouped into broader categories
called genera (singular genus)
created a formal naming system called binomial nomenclature
all species were identified using two names in the form: Genus species
italicized or underlined when handwritten as it is Latin
first letter of the genus (first word) is capitalized
was not an evolutionist; believed he was simply categorizing God's creatures in a Scala
Naturae (Nature's ladder)
Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon (1707-1788)
said the earth was 75000 years
this was a major issue with contemporary religious authorities
founded biogeography: despite similar environments, different regions have distinct
plants and animals
John-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)
proposed theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics
"vital forces" within species help them adapt to environment
acquired traits: developed through use or disuse, passed on to future generations
was among first to formulate method for origination of new species though use or disuse
of certain characters of organism
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
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