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Shawn Lehman (283)

The Archaeology of Complexity lec 5.docx

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Shawn Lehman

The Archaeology of ComplexityLecture We need to understand food production to understand themes introduced in this lectureOrganize of Lecture what is complex society Modeling the development of complex societyWhat are the things that one would find at a site that would point to complexity in past societiesWhat is Complex society Recall lecture 2 Elman serviceprimitive social organization Talked about various social forms in thepastpresent tribes bands states chiefdomsHow can we categorize these social forms Chiefdoms Larger than tribes500020 000 or more people More sophisticatedsocialforms We also see kinbased ranking under hereditary leaderWe see economy based on tributeredistribution We start to see people who do not directly participate in the collection and harvest of foodssuch as chiefs who rely on tributefood coming in the effort of others Chiefs offer leadership in exchange for this tribute We see domesticnondomestic sites ie settlements residential compounds Other sites sacred sitesreligionbased siteslack residential componentArchaeological Example Catalhoyuk is an chiefdom that existed in Eastern North AmericaStatesPreIndustrial Larger than chiefdoms generally 20 000 plus peopleClass based hierarchy undera ruler such as a kingemperorLaws bureaucracytaxation standing armies commoners versus elites CitiesArc example All ancient civilizations such as Mesopotamia ca 3200 BCSouthern Iraq Nile Valley ca 3000 BC Indus Valley ca 2500 BCborder of IndiaPakistan North China ca 2000 BC Mesoamericaca 1500 BC South America ca 1500 BCArc Indicatorsused to detect complex forms in the past ie whats evidence for chiefdomsWritingMetallurgy Predictive sciences eg astronomy mathematicsie MayansLarge population aggregates urbanizationOccupational specialization eg craftreligious specialistspottery some people instead of collecting food adopt a craft in exchange for foodMonumental architectureinvestment of labour from people who build these structures
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