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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 Notes: Principles of Evolution

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ANT100Y1 Lecture 2 Principles of EvolutionGoals Understand microevolution1 Genetic basis of inheritance and biological evolution 2 Population genetics 3 Natural Selection 4 Adaptation Understand macroevolution1 Speciation 2 How to read a cladogram 3 How evolution works on a grand scale 4 The modern synthesis The Modern Synthesis of EvolutionFocuses on how evolution works at level of phenotypes genes and populationsMicroevolution occurs at a microscopic scaleMacroevolution occurs amongst species DNARNAProteinCell Somatic Cells Most cells in body except sex cellsGametes Sex cells Sperm and ovumCytoplasm Complex mix of membranes molecules and tiny structures called organellesNucleus Contains hereditary material known as chromosomesChromosomes Paired rodshaped structures in cell nucleus containing genes that transmit traits from generation to generationDNADeoxyribonucleic acid nucleic avid used to store genetic information that codes for the synthesis of proteinsFour structures bases Adenine A Gyanine G Cytosine C and Thymine TRNA Ribonucleic Acid MoleculesDictate synthesis of proteins that perform a wide variety of functions in the body Regulates expression of other genes Work with structure in cell ribosomes that are critical for manufacture of proteins Transport amino acids to ribosomes for the creation of proteinsProtein
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