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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 - Survey of the Living Primates Part 2 - November 6.docx

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Keriann Mc Googan

November 6, 2012. Lecture 9 – Survey of the Living Primates: Part 2 This Class  Continue with survey of living primates o New World Monkeys (continued) o Old World Monkeys o Lesser Apes o Great Apes New World Monkeys  Owl Monkeys o Aotus trivirgatus o Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay o One-male/one-female groups (pair bonded) o Diet: fruit, leaves, insects o Quadrupedal o Only nocturnal anthropoid  Mantled Howler Monkey o Alouatta palliate o Southern Mexico, Central and South America o Arboreal quadrupeds o Prehensile tails o Diet: young and mature leaves, fruits, flowers o Muli-male/multi-female groups up to 21 individuals o Loud vocalizations (howls)  Woolly Spider Monkeys o Brachyteles arachnoides o Mexico, Central and South America o Diet: ripe fruit o Average of 14 kilograms o Fission-fusion social communities of up to 35 individuals  Might break off into sub-groups to go hunt/feed and then meet back up again o Suspensory locomotion; adept at brachiation Old World Monkeys  Most widely distributed nonhuman primate o Sub-Saharan Africa, Southern Asia  Most quadrupedal and arboreal  Ischial callosities o Hardened area of skin found on primate bums, basically a seating pad for comfort o Female monkeys during mating season might get swelling in this area  Diurnal  Family Ceropithecidae o Subfamilies Cercopithecinae and colobinae o Colobines  Widely spaced eye sockets  Narrower incisors  Short broad face and deeper jaw  Mainly eat leaves; sharp, high molar cusps for shearing leaves  Multi-chamber stomach specialized to better digest cellulose  Longer tail for arboreal balance o Cercopithecines  Eye sockets closer together  Low vaulted skull with shallow jaw  Lower, rounded cusps  Cheek pouches  Short tail  Cercopithecinae o Omnivorous diet o Cheek pouches o Majority found in Africa o Also Asia o E.g. baboons, macaques, vervets  Hamadryus Baboon o Papio hamadryas o Sexually dimorphic  Differences between males and females, males are larger (21KG vs. 12KG) and have larger canines, sometimes can be different colours o Quadrupedal o Once thought to be sacred to Ancient Egyptians o Ethiopia, Somalia, Saudi Arabia o Multi-level social organization  Clans, bands can sometimes contain 750 individuals  Depending on amount of food available sometimes clans will break off to feed  Clans re-join into bands for sleep  Mandrills o Mandrillus sphinx o West Africa rainforests o Sexually dimorphic  Males bigger than females o The most brightly coloured monkey o Mixed diet o Terrestrial, but sleep in trees  Japanese Macaque o Macaca fuscata o Most widely distributed primate next to humans o 13-15 KG o Various climates/terrains  Snow monkeys in Honshu islands  Tropical lowlands o Inventive  E.g. bathing  Colobinae o Leaf-eating monkeys o Asia mostly,
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