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Lecture 12

ARC132H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 12: École Des Beaux-Arts, Ludwig Mies Van Der Rohe, Le Corbusier

Architecture Studies
Course Code
Zeynep Celik

of 28
Maisha Rahman Adrita
Contemporary Architecture (JAV132)
Lecture 1: Introduction
Architectural Discourse
Verbal exchange of ideas
Formal expression of thought on a subject
A mode of organizing knowledge/ ideas/ experience rooted in language
What kind of discipline is architecture?
A profession- duty to the public
Methods of teaching- Studios, crits, etc.
Ecole Des Beaux Arts (1783-1968)
Founded by the king in France
The Vitruvian traditions (Vitruvius 1st C. Roman Engineer/ author)
Alberti also came up with orthographic drawing
Alberti (15th C.) turned architecture from a mechanical art into a fine/intellectual art
No studio space
Students had to rent their own space/hire their professor as there was no official connection to the
Painting, sculpture, architecture
System of competitions
Ecole Polytechnique (1793-present)
School of engineering
“analytic thinking”
Students took classes in the laboratory
You could just put all of the components together and get a building
Duran’s Handbook of architectural components (walls, roofs, etc.)
oEverything could be broken down to its components and reassembled
No architectural instructions until Jean- Nicholas- Louis Durand
oAn architects job is to put together present components in a grid
o“I can teach you in 3 months what Beaux- Arts does in 15 years
oAttracted students from Beaux- Arts
An art / design school
The Bauhaus strives to bring together all creative effort into one whole, to reunify all the
disciplines of practical art -- sculpture, painting, handicrafts, and arts - as inseparable components
of a new architecture (Bau)” - Walter Gropius, Bauhaus Manifesto, 1919
Adamantly anti- academic, anti historical
“Bring together all creative effort into one whole”
No matter what you took, you would take a class that focused on form, colour, line and space
In 1927, a new person took over, and the structure of the curriculum was changed
Medieval cathedral- last moment where architecture and sculpture were one
Bau, Nicht Architektur
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Maisha Rahman Adrita
oServing all ties with the past
Basic course (Vorlehre) – 6 months
oForm, color, etc.
oThe studio became a factor
Lecture 2: Representation
What is representation?
The action or fact of one person standing for another
An artistic likeness or image
Architectural Term: Simply mean architectural image which frequently stands for architecture
Without architectural drawings there would be no architecture
Parthenon, Athens
oBuilt with precision
oA sophisticated building that makes us wonder how did they make it with such precision
and sophistication?
oThere were no architects only two sculptures
oEvery Greek temple contain Entasis
oEntasis : the idea of tension
Ekphrasis: Verbal description of the visual
The absence of images in the middle ages had an odd consequence. People in the middle ages
would often try to copy famous buildings. However, relying on verbal descriptions, they often
ended up designing different things.
Representation was created by Alberti
Perspective: Two dimensional representation of three dimensions in a drawing such that parallel
lines as converge in order to give the illusion of depth and distance
Orthogonal Projections: A projection where all the projection lines are parallel to the drawing
Imitation (Ex. Holy Sepulchre), ended up producing very different results
Builders had never seen the original
Imitating a verbal description/ principle
Invention of many representational techniques (Alberti)
Invention of woodcuts- reproduction of buildings (renaissance), now digital modelling
1. Channel or system of communication
2. After mass media, newspaper, radio, television, etc., collectively as vehicles of mass
Thomas Demand- Architectural aspects of famous images, created peculiar relationship between
media and architecture
COLOMINA- ‘architecture is built as an image in the pages of magazines and newspapers’
oArchitecture is mediated, before though words, now through images (prints, photos,
magazines etc)
oDifferent to direct experience
oBarcelona Pavilion- only existed briefly, but exerted a lot of influence on architecture
though media of it
The invention of camera changed architecture almost as much as the invitation of mechanically
reproducible drawing.
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Lecture 3: Media
1. Channel or system of communication
2. After mass media, newspapers, radio, television, etc., collectively, as vehicles of mass
3. (singular, medium) anything that goes in between
Architecture is always mediated
oBuildings, landscapes, city log readings through photography, films and tv
Important example of the relationship between architecture and media
oBarcelona Pavillion very important building of modern architecture
oInfluential for a long time but had a short life
oImages participated in modern movement
oExhibition that Mies organized that made the Barcelona Pavilion so famous that in the
1980’s it was reconstructed
oMediation of architecture images have been important
Comparison of two buildings (demonstrates how media and film incorporated into the houses)
oHouses for very rich client
oSimple geometry
oPainted white
Muller House, Prague, 1930
oAdolf Loos
oAustrian architect and wrote Ornament and crime
oPhilosophy that there had to be contrast between exterior and interior
o“House does not have to tell anything from the exterior instead all its richness must be manifest in
the interior”
oThere is a central circulation which wraps around the room of the lady of the house
oLady should be in the position where she can see everything in living room and people cannot see
her. Complex interior spatial arrangement
Villa Savoye, Poissy, 1928-1931
oLe Corbusier
oSwiss and French architect and liked painting
oStarted as a watch maker
oSplit his time between painting and architecture
oWrote many books as he had to make his way into architecture through criticism
oBuilding has two floors and is dedicated for a very rich client
oIdea of the curvature was for automobiles
oThere were sinks in the main floor as hygiene was very important at that time
oOver abundance of circulation
oTerrace level where you got exposure to sunlight, exercise (hygiene)
oIdea of horizontal window in the living room in the house (essential component of Le Corbusier
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