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Monuments of Art History FAH 101.docx

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Monuments of Art History FAH 101 9/20/2012 2:13:00 PM Reading pg 115 What remains when we die:  Judgment  Paradise/hell  How to qualify  Who prays for us  Connection between here or there  Mind and body ?  External after life  Soul? How do we ensure to be remembered beyond death ?  Monuments  Pictures  Paintings Tombstones aren’t for the dead but for the living Furanary figures  perpetrates the dead into our society and secures the continuity if not the perpetuity of that individual for the world to come and commerates it for the living.  Ex. plastered skill from Jericho c, 7000 bc The image can take place as a portrait or a Simulacrum or can depict a portrait according to the historical conventions of similitude and resemblance The criteria for the realism of these portraits depends on the social conditions Monuments  Public graveyards  Lincoln memorial  Constantine the great ( idealized) v.s sculptures made after real people  Sculpture that has been ritually buried **  Statues from the Abu temple carrying beakers Eqyptions  did not distinguish between body and soul. They believed that the was a force called Ka that feeds on bodies and lives of the dead corpses so they preserved dead bodies.  They kept food, clothing, utensils in the grave  Animals were also mummified Steps of arcitecture of the pyramid  Mastaba -> stepped pyramid -> pyramid  Funerary complex King Khafre- sculptures created abdobes for the ka Woman brewing beer- buried with the dead to serve them Cerveteri (Italy) interior of the to  mb has homey feel and space for people to visit the death  is painted with leopards, banqueters and musicians ( fresco) China  Qin Dynasty (221-206 BC – 16 yrs)  Mang Tian responsible for the great wall to warn off xiongnu tribes Built the terra cotta army to protect him  The burial of emperor QiShihuangs had a tomb with the shape of pyramid  many tombs in china contain real skeletons  spirit utensils ( mingqi) buried in tombs  a tomb is a replica of reality, perpetuates life on earth Terra Cotta soliders  were never supposed to be found  live people were buried there too alive ( workers)  why were terra cotta soliders chosen instead of real soliders ?  pragmatism?, why not wood?, why look real?  All of the soliders were destroyed in a fire so archeologists put them back together  Facial types, hair etc  “ a totally unprecedented systematic attention to accuracy to verisimilitu…  The issue of likeness  What are they supposed to represent  9/20/2012 2:13:00 PM  The palmyrene gate  Persians broke into the citys Duras fate  Discovered a mithraeum in 1934 inside the rampart of the dura- europos o Domus ecclesiae ( house church) latin, was discovered with elaborate fresco decoration o Is there a missing archetype? o Is Dura a forerunner of Christian art? o Is there a western model? o Is it a corrupt reflection of a lost Hellenistic model ? o How does Dura fit into orientalist, Eurocentric model? o (( these questions have a preconceived agenda))  there are panels in the synagogue that are usually used to tell stories but are not up in a narrative order, the program is a pastiche  absence of facts , there is stylein the frescos  images serve a set of social functions like texts images construct a sermon, poem, manifesto and advertisement  photos of samual appear as the elder and patron of the synagogue in the most important places  many frescos are visually responding to local traditions  domitilla catacombs The arch of Constantine  Erected in 315 ad to commemorate his victory over maxentius in 312 at the milvian bridge in rome  First Christian roman empire  The arch is not in the same state  Purple stones  Contains spolia (fragments of other monuments )*** o 4 portions celebrating Trajan o 8 roundels from hadrianic hunting monument o 8 panels from a lost arch commemorating marcus aurelius  constantine had the 2 apostales assembelled in relics in his tomb si he would be the third apostle/  Christian spolia are body remains  Constintine had the heads spoila turned into his ( damnatio memoriae Arch of titus Princes gates Christian basilicas Byzantine World and the Hagia Sophia 9/20/2012 2:13:00 PM  The byzantine emperor was the head of state of the empire of ancient rome as divinely ordained  “Dei gratia regina”, queen by the grace of god Iconoclasm o first iconoclastic period 730-787 o second iconoclasm period 814-842 o pictures including Jesus, Mary etc, with a theological or philosophical meaning o living entities ( can walk, talk, kill ) o Iconodules destroyed icon art and murdered those who produced it o Between 7286-730 emperor of Byzantine leo 3 rdorderered the removal of jesuses face from the Great palace and was replaced by a cross, less iconic o What is Iconclasom  Condemmed the making of any painting or statue that represented jesus or on of his saints  Incarnation with materials and colours  Exact likeness of the prototype ( which was considered impossible  Any image of jeaus must represent his in his divine nature  By making an icon of jess one is separating his human and divine natures since only humans can be depicted  Human nature makes god able to die forus and his divine nature make his able to resurection  Constaninople apse mosaic, mary holding babay jesus showing his human nature and that she gave it to him  Mosaic is blurry because they were taken out and replaced by a cross during the iconoclastic peoried Byzantine Church Decoration o St peters roman reconstruction (extended in a tubular way) o Canstantinople, Hagia Sophia o Not necessarily about arcutechure but about what was done / celebratedinside the buildings o Otto Demus  The beholder can experience the holy pictures Hosis Lukas ( Greece) o Dome, quinches, lower walls/ peirs/ you o Neo-platonic o Theotokos  Greek work defines mary as the mother of god Daphni o Pantochor, with scenes with th old testament  Latin cross, uneven  Greek cross, even Architects are snthemios and isidoro Penditives or squinches New vaulting techniques San Vitale in Ravenana  Repercussion of th ehagia Sophia outise constanaople  The only named figure in the panel is maxianinus ( bishop of the time ) holding a cross  Theodore Book Illumination Icons  Peronsally owned before privately owned pictures existed  Hodegetriea o showing a group of figures worshoping the icon o icons of elousa ( tenderness and mercy, human nature of crist , incarnation o icons of st nicholus with scenes around him o 9/20/2012 2:13:00 PM final exam at Tuesday December 18 th7-9 pm benson building BN3 320 Huron Street 3 rd floor upper small gym student card/ 3 pens icons  photos of christ look the same  mandylion Gothic  Phrased by Giorgio Vasari around 1550, a derogratory term, critizizes non classical proportion of the building styles in france and Germany in the 12 thand 13 thcenturies  Nayon cathedrial  Light and architechure dominates  First gothic started in iile de france  Not a logical sequence to romaneasque or anti thesis, but charactized of Romanesque elements that is different in style  Abby church  Gothic isn’t defined by ribbed vaults and pointed arches but how the elements are amalgated in a coherent system  Moralized bible o It sign
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