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Lecture

FAH101H1 Lecture Notes - Lotus Sutra, Fire Temple, Teaware

29 pages119 viewsFall 2011

Department
Art
Course Code
FAH101H1
Professor
all

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The Artistic Landscape of East Asia: Commerce
Lecture #7, February 25, 2013.
Slide #1 – Title
Talk about exam – will come back graded next Monday; preliminary marking is
completed, but final grades not yet assigned.
Slide #2–
C: Chang’an
Between the Midterm for this course and Reading Period, we have had a long break from
the real work of the course—considering the artistic landscape of East Asia. So, I would
like to remind all of us – myself included – that we have been considering the artistic
landscape of East Asia, the patterns and practices of artistic production in the world of
China and her cultural and commercial satellites through a series of frameworks that
include: artifact, technology, space, monument, and most recently metropolis.
Before I turn to today’s topic of commerce, I would like to revisit some basic ideas of the
metropolis, particularly in its East Asian manifestation, and in particular in the case of
Chang’an.
Slide #3–
Top L: Chang’an
Lower L: Kaogong ji
Lower C: Bright Hall “Ming Tang”
Lower R: Bright Hall “Ming Tang”
The metropolis of Chang’an, -- and other metropolis – might serve as a seat of the
cosmos. Indeed, the cosmological alignment of the city may not have been fully
understood by the estimated one million residents within the city walls of Chang’an. –
and perhaps by nearly another million outside them. But the simple alignment of the city
with the cardinal directions – the most basic geomantic practice, coupled with the naming
of infrastructure to underscore this orientation – most notably in the case of the
Vermillion Bird Street – emphasized this function of the metropolis.
Slide #4–
L: Chang’an
R: Palace Facade
A metropolis might serve as the seat of an empire. In this capacity, the metropolis serves
as an image of imperial power and territory writ in larger, material terms.
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Slide #5–
L: Chang’an
R: Administrative and Financial Agencies in the Tang Dynasty
A metropolis might also serve as the seat of an imperial bureaucracy. In this capacity,
those in civil service to the empire might experience the metropolis through its function
as bureaucratic clearing house.
Slide #6–
L: Chang’an
R: Colored plan
The metropolis of Chang’an also served as a seat of religion and religious institutions.
The city was, in particular, distinguished by the number and diversity of its religious
establishments.
Red dots = Buddhist temple
1 south of palace city
2 near serpentine stream
Yellow dots =Daoist temples
Blue dots = foreign religions temples
1 Mazdaist temple – to east of West market
2 Persian temples nw of West market
Nestorian Christian temple in the suburbs,
Zoroastrian, Manichean
Slide #7
L: Chang’an
R: Luoyang
In this respect, Chang’an followed the precedent of the Western Wei capital of Pingcheng
or modern Luoyang, whose many pagodas punctured the skyline to attests to the presence
and importance of Buddhist religious institutions in the city.
Slide #8
L: Chang’an
R: Luoyang
In particular, the pagoda of the Yongning Monastery was reported in Record of the
Monasteries of Luoyang to be as tall as the Eiffel Tower – 270 meters plus a golden spire
that extended for another 30 meters, giving particular visual and material force –of not
some artistic license- - to the proclamation of this earlier metropolis as a religious center.
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Slide #9–
L: Chang’an
R: Amusement quarters
The metropolis was also a center for social life. In its most rarified form that social life
existed in the entertainment districts of the metropolis. In these districts, in restaurants,
wine shops, and brothels trends formed and tastes were codified outside the tamer social
life, mediated by more explicit norms of Confucian propriety, of palace and home.
Slide #10–
L: Chang’an
R: Women’s figure types
a. Ewer, showing Anahita, Persian goddess of fertility, Sassanian
Dynasty, gilded silver, Iran, 6th century.
b. Girl in Persian Boy’s clothing, cold-painted ceramic, Tang dynasty
China, 7th –early 8th cent.
c. Sarcophagus of Princess Yongtai, carved stone, 701 CE, Tang
dynasty, China.
d. Woman with dog, cold-painted ceramic, circa 755, Tang dynasty,
China.
The metropolis also served as the seat of style and fashion.
Slide #11–
C: Human forms
All – Male figure, ceramic, Tang dynasty, China.
The metropolis was also a site of a critical mass of humanity, of so many types – cultural,
ethnic, racial -- represented in so many ways.
Slide #12–
C: Gigaku masks – man and woman of Wu, SE coastal China
Man = Gentleman of Wu, paint on paulownia wood, 778 CE, place of
manufacture unknown.
Woman = Woman of Wu, paint on paulownia wood, 8th cent. CE, place of
manufacture unknown.
The critical mass of humanity found in the metropolis makes the metropolis as site of
spectacularization of other
Gigaku masks – masks for musical theater – indicate the desire on the part of eighth
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