Ast101 Lecture - November 1 2012.pdf

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Astronomy & Astrophysics
Michael Reid

AST101: The Sun and its Neighbours November 1, 2012 - 2nd midterm review: Tuesday 4-6 PM, MS 2158 - Why is Venus so different from Earth? ▯ - biggest difference is that Venus's surface is much hotter than Earth's ▯ - this is because Venus is a lot closer to the sun than Earth ▯ - more intense sunlight would raise surface temperature by about thirty degrees ▯ - this would lead to a lot more water evaporation on the planet ▯ - water is a strong greenhouse gas, but it doesn't have a negative feedback cycle ▯ ▯ the way that CO2 has. ▯ - water in the atmosphere would raise the temperature even more, until the ▯ ▯ planet was above the boiling point of water, and everything in the oceans would ▯ ▯ be in the atmosphere ▯ - this would lead to a runaway greenhouse effect ▯ - if Earth was where Venus is, it would wind up a lot like Venus - why does temperature in the "troposphere" decease with altitude? ▯ - the atmosphere's pressure comes from the weight of what's above, so pressure decreases with height ▯ - the "troposphere" is the convective part of the carries heat up from below ▯ - a gas expands and cools off when its pressure goes down - in the regions above the troposphere, it gets HOTTER as you go up. This happens because something is heating these layers (ultraviolet radiation) - where does the magnetic field come from? ▯ - magnetic fields "thread" metallic (or electrically conducting) mater and can be wound up and strengthened by motions of the matter. - three ingredients lead to strong magnetic fields: ▯ 1. Metallic (or conducting)
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