BIO120H1 Lecture Notes - Soil, Horse Latitudes, Sonoran Desert

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15 Oct 2013
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BIO120H1F
Introduction
September 10th, 2012
Intro to the principles and concepts of evolution and ecology, related to the origins of adaptation and biodiversity.
General Information
Email: bio120@utoronto.ca
Required Materials
Laboratory Manual, uoft bookstore on Wednesday
Why Evolution is True, by Jerry Coyne
Knowledge Project articles
Labs
01 Labs start week of Sept 17th
Check “My Grades” on Portal on Friday Sept 14 to find lab room
Quizzes
5% Course grade
12 in total, 1st quiz on syllabus
Lecture Tutorials
Monday 5:00-6:00 PM and Wed 8:00-9:00 PM
ES 1050
Professor Introductions
Thompson
Interaction between flowering plants and pollinating animals
How do plant-animal interactions drive evolution
The Economy of Nature by Robert Ricklefs (recommended reading)
Nature Education Knowledge (required reading)
Barrett
Evolution = Ecology and genetics
Lecture 1: Distributional Aspects of Biodiversity
September 12th, 2012
Where we find organisms is not random organisms are adapted for specific environment
Abiotic (physical and chemical factors): resources and conditions
Organisms need resources are exhaustible
- Nutrients, space, etc.
Depend on conditions not exhaustible
- Temp, ph, salinity, etc.
Conditions vary across space and time (more or less in some places), we envision gradients of conditions
- Organisms have ranges of conditions where it functions optimally
Species have ranges of tolerance along environmental gradients
- Tails are called lethal zones
- E.g. Mount Everest dead zone: variable of interest is the O2 concentration
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BIO120H1F
What factors are most important?
For terrestrial plants
- Temp, soil moisture (most important)
- Nutrients dissolved elements (N most important, P, K macronutrients)
Also lots of micronutrients needed
- Disturbance (e.g. fire), herbivory, disease, pollinators, seed dispersers, mycorrhizal fungi
For aquatic plants:
- Add salinity, remove moisture and fire, P key
For terrestrial animals (heterotrophs)
- Food and water
- Temp (cover, nesting sites)
- Habitat quality (birds need nesting sites, woodpeckers need dead trees, etc.)
- Predation, disease
For aquatic animals
- Salinity/osmotic pressure body functions differently in salt vs fresh water
Animals tend to follow plants
Gradients at the global level: temperature, rainfall, seasonality
Seasonality is the timing of temperature and rainfall
Temperature is mostly a function of latitude: warmest at equator, coldest at poles
High latitude colder: seasonality a function of temperature
Lower latitudes warmer: seasonality a function of rainfall
- Rainfall depends on atmospheric circulation, offshore ocean currents, rain shadows
These factors (temp, rainfall, seasonality) determine biomes, determined by temp, rainfall, and seasonality
At higher latitudes, light hits earth at lower anger and is spread out
At equator, sun is closer and shines directly down on earth‟s surface
Summer and spring equinox?
Atmospheric circulation: Hadley cells make equatorial regions rainy
Solar rays heat not so much atmosphere, but land surface, which emits infrared and heats air
Heated (less dense) air rises (at equatorial region), cools as it rises, governed by adiabatic lapse rate (the cooling
rate): 5-10C/km
- Warm air can have a lot of vapour in the air
As air cools, water vapour condenses and falls as rain near equator
- Warmer the air, the more water vapour it can carry
Air (wrung dry of moisture) keeps pushing up until it has nowhere to go and starts to move laterally
- At +/- 30 north and south, the air starts to descend
- No precipitation air is very dry
- High pressure areas (because air is coming down) because air is descending, creates desert areas
Blue skies, sunny day, no cloud
1 km of rise = air cools by 5-10C (Depends on water vapour content)
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BIO120H1F
Intertropical convergence zones: line of thunder storms across Pacific where air is sucked in from north and
south and is rising up
- Shifts seasonally, not always at the equator exactly
- Producing rainy and dry seasons for certain areas, and continuous rain for other
Wind
Wind direction involves 2 things: Hadley (gives north
and south direction) and the spinning of the earth (east
and west direction
Winds will rise at a certain longitude and descend at
different latitudes because earth is a sphere and it spins
Twisting of winds: corriolus effect
30 degrees north of south: horse latitudes areas of
weak and unpredictable wind
Between equator and horse latitude: air moves towards
the equator
- Corriolus effect turns these winds into easterlies
At equator: also unpredictable wind, areas called
doldrums
North of horse latitudes beyond 30 degrees:
Westerlies winds
- Stronger in southern 40s than northern 40s
(because there‟s no continents there)
- Called the roaring forties
Wandering Albatross
Air rises at 0 and 60 degrees, falls at 30
degrees
3 (or 6) cell model of atmospheric circulation
Little seasonality = tropics,
evergreen forests
Convergence Zones shift because
earth is spinning
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