BIO220H1 Lecture 4:

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18 Jan 2019
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Why these behaviors exist?
Alarm Calls
Cooperative breeding
Eusociality
Eusocial species:
-overlapping generations
-cooperative breeding
-division of labors
Social Behaviour
Definitions
A simple evolutionary explanation of cooperative behavior
(a lot of mathematical models from Game theory)
Shared direct benefits
Game theory
Slightly more complicated evolutionary
explanations of cooperative behaviour
Reciprocity
Kin selection
Social Behaviour
The interaction with – and responses to – other individuals of the
same species
Altruistic:
Behaviour increases another individual’s reproductive success at a
cost to one’s own reproductive success
Cooperative:
Behaviour that, if adopted by two (or more) individuals, benefits
both
Cooperation and Natural Selection
“… a special difficulty, which at first appeared to me insuperable*,
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and actually fatal to my theory”
Charles Darwin 1859
How can cooperative genotypes spread in an environment of selfish
genes?
One explanation: Shared direct benefits
Cooperation can generate immediate shared benefits
Cooperative breeding provides a clear example
Game Theory, a brief explanation
Some number of players
Set of possible strategies
Some pay-off schedule for playing A against B, for all A and B
Hawk - Dove Game
Contest between two individuals over obtaining a resource
Two strategies that can be used:
Hawk (fight aggressively)
Dove (resolve contest peacefully)
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