Lecture 7 Evolution of Resistance

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11 Apr 2012
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Lecture 7 BIO220 Evolution of Resistance
The Evolution of resistance
Malaria: resistance in a host
Antibiotics: resistance in a bacterial pathogen
HIV: resistance in a viral pathogen
Evolution of resistance in malaria
350-500 million cases
1 million deaths
mostly children in sub-Saharan Africa
Malaria
mosquito-borne
fever and chills
anemia due to loss of red blood cells
Methods of Control
drug treatments in humans
eradicating the vector (mosquito)
decreasing contact between humans and vector
Eradicating Mosquitoes I: The larval stage
Remove larvae from water.
Eradicating Mosquitoes II: The adult stage
Spray using insecticides (similar to antibiotics; mutations can be resistant; eventual
resistance)
Evolution of Insecticide resistance in mosquitoes
Treatment started in 1968
Treatment ended in early 1990s because resistance evolved
Treated area eventually favors insecticide resistance alleles
A1 allele increases in frequency near spray site, declines further away.
Tuberculosis
Common and deadly
Attacks the lungs
Caused by bacteria
Resistance increases with drug use
Increased antibiotic use increased resistance
Antibiotic resistance evolves rapidly
Resistance decreases with decreased drug use
Icelandic health officials campaign to reduce the use of penicillin. The result was a decline
in the frequency of resistant strains.
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