BIO230 part 1 notes.docx

26 views8 pages
Published on 3 Oct 2012
School
UTSG
Department
Biology
Course
BIO230H1
Lecture 1
o Two main cell types:
Prokaryotics eubacteria & archaea
o Are usually single celled and lack nucleus & organelles
o Eukaryotes plants, fungi, animals
o Some single celled but usually multi-cellular & has nuclei & organelles
o Prokaryotes are surrounded by sugar coat & cell wall and plasma
membrane that houses DNA, proteins & RNAs
o doesn’t always have
tails
o Genomes encode the information to construct and maintain an
organism
Genomes are mostly made of DNA except some viruses that
have RNA genomes
Genome expression is required to release biological
information
o Genome expression makes transcriptome first: which is a collection
of RNA molecules in a cell at a particular time
o Transcriptome is maintained by Transcription
o
o secondly, genome expression makes proteome: which is a collection
proteins in a cell, which is maintained through Translation
o
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o THE ENTIRE PROCESS = “CENTRAL DOGMA”: Genome(DNA0
trancriptome(RNA) proteome (protein)
o Different cell types have the same genome but different genome
expression
o Human genome ~ 25,000 genes
o
o INTERACTOME is produced after proteome after localization to produce
metabolites
o
o
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Prokaryotic Transcription Regulation 9/24/2012 1:44:00 PM
o Gene expression regulation is important for:
Responding to extracellular stimuli
Defining cell types (only in multicellular organisms)
o Transcriptional Regulation on prokaryotes
1. Promoter gets recognized by RNAP and sigma factor
2. RNAP forms a holoenzyme with sigma factor
3. RNAP then unwinds DNA and starts transcription
4. After ~10 nucleotides have been synthesized, sigma factor gets
released
5. Transcription keeps elongating then gets terminated
o Transcription Regulation on eukaryotes:
Requires many proteins transcription factors that help position
RNAP to the promoters
TBP: recognizes TATA box, which gets binded on with TFIID &
TFIIB
TFIIH: unwinds DNA double helix with ATP and phosphorylates
RNAP II, which can begin the elongation phase at CTD
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Document Summary

Genomes are mostly made of dna except some viruses that have rna genomes. Prokaryotic transcription regulation 9/24/2012 1:44:00 pm: gene expression regulation is important for: Requires many proteins transcription factors that help position. Tbp: recognizes tata box, which gets binded on with tfiid & Tfiih: unwinds dna double helix with atp and phosphorylates. Rnap ii, which can begin the elongation phase at ctd: types of rna: Rrna: forms basic structures of ribosome and catalyze protein synthesis. Snorna: small nucleolar: modifies rrnas: genes get transcribed at different rates because of gene regulatory proteins (transcription factors) which binds to regulator regions of dna (cis elements) Can turn genes on: activators (positive regulators) Or turn genes off: repressors (negative regulators: bacterial gene regulation: E. coli: contains one chromosome of circular dna and is a unicellular prokaryote. Special feature for prokaryote: multiple genes can be transcribed into a single rna molecule: example for operons:

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