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BCH210H1 Lecture Notes - Triose, Inner Mitochondrial Membrane, Beijing Capital International Airport

Course Code
Michael Baker

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Case Study: Soon-yi Swift Part I
1. The beach
2. Muscle: Phosphocreatine, ATP, and Glucose
3. Glucose as Fuel for Muscle
4. GLycolysis
5. Glycolytic Enzymes
6. Anaerobic Glycolysis and Cramping
7. Regulation of Glycolysis
Carbohydrates and Energy Metabolism in Marathon Running
- Soon-yi Swift is 20 years of age and a second year student in Life Science at
the U of T
- She trained for the marathon for four years with the Balmy Beach Track Club
in the hopes of joining the Canadian track team for the Olympics in Beijing
- But her best time was 10 min slower than the cut time imposed by the COC in
2004 for the Athens Olympics-so she needed more training
- Soon-yi is 97 lb (44 kg) and during her training participated in four marathons
(42 km each)
- Her practice schedules involved 3 formats:
oExtended runs (>15 km), shorter runs (5-10 km) and rest days
The rest days were essential for Soon-yi to rebuild her body fuel
compound reserves
- On this training day she got up at 6am on a cool, dry morning, late in October
oShe will be running along “The Beach” in Toronto’s East End
- She has had nothing to eat since last night at 8pm
- The beach and boardwalk are now deserted, and she slowly begins her warm-

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- Soon-yi’s muscle cells need
ATP for muscle contraction
- She does have ATP in her muscle cells at about 3 mM
oBut her exercises are using up this energy nucleotide
oATP + H2O → ADP+ Pi +H+
oAs muscles are contracting when doing preliminary stretches, ATP is
turned to ADP to support contraction
- To regenerate ATP, using phosphocreatine
oCreatine phosphate (25 mM) in muscle now is used to sustain ATP
PCr + ADP → ATP + Cr
Phospho-link is high in energy, can be used to transfer P from
phosphocretine and onto ADP
PCr supporting ATP for a certain period of time, but then PCr
starts to be degraded and ATP falls
Over initial time period, PCr is in support
As ATP is maintained, PCr breaks down, and then
ultimately ATP goes down too
oPCr is first line of defence, supporting ATP levels in muscles for first
few minutes as activity increases

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- But now PCr levels are
- Soon-yi needs more energy for her activity
oFuels must be broken down to sustain ATP
- Although she has not eaten today, she does have a blood glucose level of 3.2
oGlucose circulating in blood vessels
o2 mM is minimum needed
- Blood glucose enters her muscle cells by glucose transporters (GLUT4)
Proteins in cell surface of muscle
oCatch a glucose molecule, and go tepee
Once grabbing glucose, change conformation and role into
Rolling into membrane, glucose falls down into cells to support
energy needs
oGlucose entering muscle cells to be used as a fuel
- When glucose gets into muscle cell, has to be broken down to make energy
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