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BIOD29 Lecture 2A.docx

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Aarti Ashok

BIOD29 Pathobiology of Human Disease Lecture 3 January 16, 2012 Single-stranded (+) RNA viruses Picornaviruses  Pico RNA viruses  Naked icosahedral capsids because only contains a capsid not an envelope  All genes translated into a huge protein (atypical of eukaryote) Poliovirus  Cause of paralytic polio in humans  Death of motor neurons in the spinal cord which leads to paralysis  Serotypes are different antigens on the outside of a virion  This is a pathogen that has co-evolved with us  It has extra cellular domains that are disulphide linked  Unique to virus: viral proteins insert into the host cell membrane, possibly making a pore through which the RNA genome is injected  IRES present in the 5’ non-coding region of the viral RNA. o Multiple stem-loop structures  These RNAs do not rely on the 5’ methyl cap, its own RNA do not have the methyl cap.  Cap-dependent translation (which our cells normally do), the virus is going to find a way to stop this from happening. The virus is going to target a host factor called eIF host complex and destroy it.  Inhibit cellular mRNA translation o Encoded a protein that will clip 4G  Inhibit secretory pathway o Normally involved in ER goes to Golgi and makes vesicles release to outside of the cell. The virus encodes factors which will stop factor from exocytosing and will be stuck within the cell.  Become anchored to cellular vesicles o The viral RNA in the cytosol is associated with cellular vesicles that are accumulated  3AB is VPg with an extra bit.  The –ve STRANDED RNA is made by the virally encoded RNA-dependent polymerase = 3D polymerase  The viral genome is the positive RNA; the whole point of viral infection is it wants to make more of itself. You need to make lots of positive RNA to be able to be packed.  Initial positive strand, make one negative strand, then use that one negative strand 40 times before you use another negative strand. Really good at making positively RNA that can be packaged.  Two hypotheses of how to end up with fully packaged
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