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Lecture 15

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Lecture 15 -Within the deepest mantles of the earth exists extremotrophs, which do not thrive on sunlight but rather use chemical oxidation -Alongside other organisms that fix organic carbon, these are quite abundant -The three raw ingredients to fix carbon are an energy source, an electron donor, an inorganic carbon source -In the photosynthetic passway, one sees a chemical reaction undergoing -First step is light, which attaches to the donor, and secondarily there is carbon in another pathway - The light pathway is converted into a chemical reaction NADPH, and converts with CO2 into sugar -C4 pathways are more expensive pathways, and found primarily in areas that are hot and dry -Under these conditions, c4 pathways which are expensive, can outcompete the previous c3 pathways -It comes as no surprise that C4 pathways area some of the worse weeds in the world -CAM Photosynthesis uses a process where CO2 is absorbed during the night-time -The extra pathway allows it to capture CO2 at night, since plants intake CO2 during the night and lose it during the hot day -Plants must operate during the coolest possible period, and this form of metabolism is referred to as CAM -In anoxic photosynthesis, organisms use a sulfur compound to photosynthesize rather than water -The sulfur serves as the electron donor, andthis produces a sulfur waste compound -This also serves as the generic formula of photosynthesis, substitute S with O and the same applies -Chemosynthesis is often found from thermal geysers and activity from deeper within the Earht’s core -The mid-Ocean Ridge is slowly spreading apart, separating and pushing out chemicals and other materials -Reduced ions are being pushed onto the surface -The discovery of these tectonic shifts and the pushing of the mid-Ocean Ridge begun with Alvin -Alvin is an unmanned craft which was taking pictures on the deepest levels of the Ocean -The existence of fish and crabs in these regions of hydrothermal vents surprised many -As they looked further, ephemeral (short-lived, unpredictable communities) communities which often died quickly popped up to utilize these chemicals and disappear -Bacteria in these areas are utilizing the bacteria in these areas in order to fix Carbon, using energy from oxidation reactions Lecture 16 -Deserts in the Old and New World demonstrate very similar appearances and adaptations, despite the fact that they are very different -The reason so being is that desert had evolved much after the two landmasses had separated -How communities are put together and form depend on body size and trophic size and their ecological implications -A question regarding body size is which organism has a f
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