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University of Toronto St. George
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

- individual: individual differences in personality and mental processes that concern how we perceive and know our world - individual differences: personality, gender, age groups, self-concept - perception and cognition: thinking, decision making, memory, seeing, hearing - behaviour: observable actions, responses, physical movements - biological: how the physical body contributes to mind and behaviour - brain systems: neuroanatomy, animal research, brain imaging - neurochemical: neurotransmitters, hormones, animal studies, drug studies - genetic: gene mechanisms, heritability, twin and adoption studies - how does music affect emotional states and thought processes? - cognitive level: music tempo or mode can affect mood - “Russia under the Mongolian Yoke” by Prokofiev played at half speed puts people into negative moods - neurochemical level: effect of music on brain chemistry, pleasant music may be associated with increased activation of serotonin - brain system level: does perceiving music use the same brain circuits as perceiving the sound of cars of spoken language? Processing musical information is similar to general auditory processing but likely also uses different brain mechanisms - case reports of patients with certain types of brain injury lost the ability to hear tone and melody but not speech or environmental sounds - genetic level: study revealed half the variability in liking jazz music is determined by genetic influence What Are the Intellectual Origins of Psychology? The Nature-Nurture Debate Considers the Impact of Biology and Environment - whether they are biologically innate or acquired through education, experience or culture - recent advances specify when nature or nurture is important and how they interact - e.g. schizophrenia: people have unusual thoughts or experience unusual sensations, bipolar disorder: a person has dramatic mood swings - prior to the 1950s they were thought to be caused by bad parenting and other environmental circumstances - post 1950s, drugs were discovered that could alleviate the symptoms - mental disorders are more likely in certain environments suggesting they can be triggered by the situation - nurture activates nature thus they are tightly interwoven and inseparable The Mind-Body Problem Has Challenged Philosophers and Psychologists - whether the mind and body are separate and distinct, or whether the mind is simply the subjective experience of the physical brain
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