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University of Toronto St. George
Jean Jiang Nash

LECTURE 22 C-cadherin and integrin feed into cell cell to cell contact cell know if other cells around, modifying cell proliferation Myc = growth factors through receptor tyrosine kinases regulating myc expression, which regulates cell cycle Cyclin B brings cell up to DNA synthesis P53 and p21 = DNA damage center All human cancers have Rb misregulation and P53, especially Rb misregulation or mutation There are ~10 to the power of 14 cells in the human body Small percentage of these cells divide, make two daughter cells Every time cell divides, DNA replication is imperfect Also cosmic rays and radiation All of which can cause mutation Body can recognize that and cell undergoes programmed cell death, and its removed from system Cancer develops from one of these cells Excess proliferation Cells need to divide too much and to escape cell death to be good cancer cells o Collection of mutations allow this o Immortalized o Tumour cells are immortal actual term o Grow tumour cells in tissue culture, will divide indefinitely Females are mosaics due to X inactivation o Cluster of normal cells mixture o Look at tumour, all of the cells have same inactivated X chromosome o Evidence that ONE cell turned into whole tumour (exponential growth) o As long as nutrients is sufficient o Large enough to be visible on X-ray o Already around for quite a long time o How do tumours kill people? Get too big and push on something important, cut off circulation of something important o 24 hours in cell cycle at maximum rate of division How long would it take the tumour to be too big Tumour Uncontrolled proliferation -> mass of abnormal cells Neoplasm = new growth Based on type of originating tissue o Carcinomas o Benign tumour not all benign tumours pass onto next stage
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