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Lecture 16

CLA230 Lecture 16 Notes

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Michael J.Dewar

CLA230 Lecture 16 Notes Fighting in the Straits - Persian satraps pay for 100 Spartan ships - turning point in the war – not the failure of the Sicilian expedition – but when Persia starts giving Sparta money - therefore the Spartans launch a navy - satraps do not collect taxes from Ionia – Ionia pays tribute to Athens - attempt to recoup financial losses – if Athens loses, then Persia can regain Ionian territory - not just Spartan ships – also Corinth, etc. from the Peloponnese - despite the assistance – Athens still wins battles in the north Aegean - Athenian victories • Cynossema – 411 B.C. • Abydos – winter 411/0 B.C. • Cyzicus – 410 B.C. - northern Aegean is important for Athens – import grain - not self-sufficient agriculturally – Athens imports from Greek colonies on the Black Sea - around 410 B.C., Spartans sue for peace – Athens refuses Alcibiades, the 400 - around 411 B.C. - Alcibiades – in exile since the Sicilian expedition - approaches the Athenian fleet at Samos – offers Persian money in exchange for his recall – wants to overthrow the democracy - can guarantee Persian money – likely bluffing - what matters to Alcibiades is Athenian importance within the city - “traditional constitution” gains momentum – anti-democratic coup - coup continues despite the lack of Persian assistance and breakdown of negotiations between Athens and Alcibiades - Council of 400 to draft list of the 5000 - democracy is expensive – pay for office, pay for jury duty, etc. – oligarchy is cheap - military expenses only – reduction of pay for office - graphe paranomon – ability for a citizen to sue another on the grounds of proposing an illegal motion - suspension of graphe paranomon - killing of political enemies and seizing their assets - intimidation Alcibiades the Democrat - Athenian fleet in Samos stays democratic - Alcibiades becomes pro-democracy – suddenly switches sides - fleet elects its own generals – one of whom is Alcibiades - the Council of 400 is deposed in Athens - city and army have two forms of government – idea of “two cities of Athens” - quote by Thucydides: “for the first time (at least during my life) the Athenians were well governed: for there was a reasonable mixture with regard to the few and the many, and it was this which first lifted the city out of the wretched state it had fallen into” - moderate democracy or fairly broad-based oligarchy - best government to Thucydides – conservative Literary Sources - Thucydides • text breaks off in autumn of 411 B.C. - Xenophon • student of Sophocles – wrote about him • Hellenica – contemporary – 411-362 B.C. • picks up where Thucydides left off • sort of appendix to Thucydides - Diodorus Siculus • Bibliotheke – written in the 1 century B.C. • political history - Plutarch • lives – of Alcibiades and Lysander Persian and Lysander - spring of 407 B.C. - become closer in the waning years of the war - Sparta sends embassy to Darius II - king sends his son Cyrus – who is only sixteen years old - Cyrus sent to Anatolia – with special command - negotiation of subsidies – can offer higher daily wage for rowers than the Athenians can - Cyrus and Lysander negotiate - Lysander is navarch - Lysander defeats the Athenian fleet at Notion – 406 B.C. - Alcibiades is deprived of command therefore Athens is defeated – Alcibiades goes to Thrace - following summer, 405 B.C. – Lysander defeats Athenian fleet at Aegospotami - Alcibiades goes to Athenian admirals to tell them that they have the fleets in a bad position - Lysander intercepts grain fleet – harvested in June/July - brings an end to the war - Lysander establishes decarchies – panels of ten men to run cities - Athens is forced to surrender because they are blockaded on land and sea - Persian money allows Sparta to rebuild their fleets Terms of Surrender - dismantle fortifications - quote by Xenophon: “They proceeded to tear down the walls to the accompaniment of pipe‐girls with great enthusiasm, thinking that day was the beginning of freedom for Greece.” - exiles recalled - stripped of empire – no claims of overseas possessions - fleet surrendered – kept only twelve ships for defense - same friends and enemies as Sparta - Sparta wants to call the shots in Greece - Corinth and Thebes want Athens destroyed but Sparta refuses The Thirty - around 404 B.C. - many political changes in Athens after defeat - after the surrender of Athens to Sparta • recall of all exiles • Spartan garrison of 700 in the Acropolis - exile Critias – becomes important in the new political organization - under Spartan pressure – board of 30 to revise the constitution - rule of the city in the meantime – the board of 30 - task is to restore the “ancestral constitution” – reverse the legislation of Ephialtes - Ephialtes – strip power from Areopagus and giving power to assembly and law court – changes took place in 462 B.C. - brief but influential reign of 30 - “reign of terror” – worse than the 400 list of 5000 - condemn and execute wealthy and political enemies - objectors – Theramenes, Athenian aristocrats – executed - objection to the condemnation of 30 metics – Thearmenes is executed by Critias - movement of exiles led to Phyle – a border fort - leader Thrasyboulos – leads exiles - seize the fort and march of Piraeus – counter-revolution - series of battles are won against the Thirty Settlement of 403 B.C. - Pausanias – Spartan king - Pausanias draws up a settlement - Lysander set up the Board of Thirty – not a king - Sparta perhaps worried of Lysander’s influence and power - call for general amnesty – except for the Thirty - reversion back to 5 century B.C. Athenian democracy - Council of 500 – chosen by lot for 403/2 B.C. - commissioners appointed to revise laws – revision in period of 403/2 B.C. and 400/399 B.C. Trial of Socrates - one result of the turmoil is the trial and execution of Socrates in 399 B.C. - both Critias and Alcibiades were students and friends of Socrates - accused of: • refusing to recognize the gods recognized by the state • introducing other new divinities • corrupting the youth - quote: “Socrates is accused of (1a) refusing to recognise the gods recognised by the state; (1b) introducing other new divinities; (2) corrupting the youth. The penalty demanded is death.” - prosecution wants death sentence – defendant makes counter-proposal – jury decides between the two - defense of Socrates – Xenophon - quote: “But I, men, wonder at this in the first place about Meletus: judging by what in the world does he say that I don't believe in the gods in whom the city believes —since both anyone else who happened to be present and Meletus himself, if he wished, used to see me sacrificing at the common festivals and on the public altars.” - religious crime is fairly significant - evidence for trial – two sources - sources for trial of Socrates: • Xenophon – not present but friends with Socrates • Plato – present at trial - likely both sources are historically accurate because both sources have similar speeches - Athenian comedy – Aristophanes makes fun of Socrates in Clouds – 423 B.C. - quote Socrates: “Well, the Clouds are the only deities we have –the rest are just so much hocus pocus.” - quote Strepsiades: “Hang on—by the Earth, isn’t Zeus a god, the one up there on Mount Olympus?” - quote Socrates: “What sort of god is Zeus? Why spout such rubbish? There’s no such being as Zeus.” - quote Strepsiades: “What do you mean? Then who brings on the rain? First answer that.” - quote Socrates: “Why, these Clouds do. I’ll prove that to you with persuasive evidence. Just tell me where have you ever seen the rain come down without the Clouds being there? If Zeus brings rain, then he should do so when the sky is clear, when there are no Clouds in view.” - quote Strepsiades: “By Apollo, you’ve made a good point there —it helps your argument. I used to think rain was really Zeus pissing through a sieve. Tell me who causes thunder? That scares me.” - Plato’s Apology – Socrates’ “daimonion” - quote: “I am subject to a divine or supernatural experience… it began in my early childhood –a sort of voice which comes to me; and when it comes it always dissuades me from what I am proposing to do, and never urges me on.” - introduction of a new god – he calls this a “daimonion” – su
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