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CLA233H1 Lecture Notes - Plebeian Council, Plebs, Centuriate Assembly

Course Code
Erik Gunderson

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Checks and Balances
Citizenship and Assemblies
12 new men now held the consulship (new families, not the old ones)
Can't be consul repeatedly
Cant control army on your own
Will spark that kings are returning, so people will fight against it
Would try to claim that forefathers did it to make it "appropriate"
Military, economic, political accomplishments are seen as equal
Higher social freedom equals more rights
Magistrates work in consensus, small staff, anti-beaurocratic
People have right to vote on proposals (yes or no)
Citizenship Categories
oFull Roman citizenship
oLatin rights (gives Roman property rights)
o Freedmen
originally haveLatin rights
later have Roman rights
always still have obligations to their former master (who is now freedmans
oForeigners (members of tributary, free, or allied cities)

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Republican Citizenship
Equality of rights
Inequality of participation
Geometrical representation
ouneven stakeholders
omilitary, political, fiscal coordination
o"moderate democracy
More responsibilities means more rights
This basic principle is never radically challenged
Census represents the armed citizenry
Census encompassescommunity standing broadly conceived
Census grades originally used to levy the citizenry according to ability to contribute
Census rankings remain the basis for voting units even after changes in army recruitment
Census supposed to be once every 5 years
Census is mandatory; failure punished by enslavement
Census carried out by censors and a small staff in Rome
Carried out elsewhere by local magistrates who report back to Rome
Census registration via oaths of the citizenry
Roman Magistracies
General Principles
extension if needed via prorogatio
gap between holding same office again
veto by colleagues
veto from above
Exceptions to General Principles
censors every 5 years
dictatoras needed (emergency office)
dictator has no colleague
dictator cannot face a veto
Hierarchy of Offices
Offices With imperium

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(i.e. military authority) - Brings senate membership
Offices without Imperium
Originally does not bring membership in senate
aedile (become senators in 123)
quaestor (Quaestors in 80 (Sulla's reforms))
Tribunes of the People
a separate and parallel order
cannot be a patrician
can veto any other magistrate (including colleagues) except the dictator
can veto legislation
oversees the plebeian council
can propose legislation to it
Duties of Consuls
Preside over senate
Chief civil officers
Chief military officers
Diplomatic officers
Convene the centuriate assembly
Duties of Praetors
army commanders
Duties of Aediles
markets and public buildings
Festivals (good marketing to be elected Praetor)
Duties of Quaestors
financial officers
governors' staff (train to be governor)
military finances
The Augustan Revolution
In Livy's lifetime there is an end to the republic and a rise in people who act like kings. Then
there becomes a pattern of a main man in the centre of governmental power
Overview of the Life
Born Octavian in 63 BCE
Named Julius Caesars heir in 44 BCE (19 yrs. Old)
Defeats Antonius at Actium in 31 BCE: he now has no rivals for power
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