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lec 10

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University of Toronto St. George
Yuriy Lozynsky

Lec 10 Roman history (509 BC- c. 146 BC) --- Huge time gap We’ll go over some details next lesson too… Looking at republican constitution and their expansion And also the war of carthage Thast why we are pushing ahead to the 2 century Abit of social history “struggle of Orders” conflict between the wealthy class and the poor people --- What we discussed last time What italy looked like during the two ages Transition into the few cultures There was a continuity of sorts Their language (not IE) Etruskan influence on Rome (culturally and politically, because the last 3 kings were Etruskans) Founding of Rome Romulus and remus (more of a local italic myth) Aeneans (roman attempt to connect with wider greek world) Urbanization started at c. 625 BC Community worked together to build stuff Big project= the filling in of the valley, the low areas of the hills, which brought them the urban centre Kings Had slightly different ethnicities (eg. Sabine king, Etruskan king etc.) The roman ethnicity (being roman loses an ethnic character, is instead a cultural, political definition) --- Republican constitution Understand the republican system 509 BC Is when Lucias Junius Brutus and other roman nobles ousted the kings and established the roman republic Government was established right from the beginning There was never a written constitution Whole system not held together by political sense Aristocracy saw benefit of having regional benefit? Concordia (system held by consensus, harmony) Mos maiorun = the custom of our ancestors The romans maintained that we will keep doing things like the ancestors did Was an informal thing Republican system falls apart later The officers (magistrates in charge) Cursus honorum = the course of offices Every roman made his way up through this system There were 2 consuls Had equal authority Represented those who did the duties of kings (eg. calling assemblies together, administering justice, commanding armies, managing conquered terrirory etc.) There are 2 to check one another Limit them being too ambitious Elected each year Voting took part in march (beginning of political year) Every spring thered be a new election Sb could veto the consuls But in essence they are what are left over from kings Consuls walked around with these guys (elickters?) Carried fasces Stick resembles his civic authority (power to administer capital punishment) Wore a sash Purple was colour of kings in ancient world Sat on special chairs Romans were into the power representation of these consuls Imperium = the right to command troops The consuls also had Auspicia = right to conduct public sacifices Praetors Orignilly there were only 2 of them, then expanded to 6, then 12 Administrative officers, but later also took on military duties Tangible object, symbolized Governors of provinces Became judges in tribunal courts Would expand the praetorship Aedile= Responsible for public maintainance of buildings Sort of like a city- planning Put on public games and performances (gladiatorial combats, comedies and tragedies etc) Quaestor = a treasuer sort of guy Had financial responsibilities There were age restrictions on what age you had to be so you could be each position in this ladder Julius Caesar became aedile --- Consul responsible for war and peace, Usw. --- These guys called military tribunes Were administrative figures, but responsible primarily for military things Dictators always used by romans Was considered a dangerous office Had more power than the consuls had, centralized on one guy called the dictator Not clear how he functioned Was more an emergency system Master of the horse = dictator of the? Censor Was responsible for number of things Tried to keep roman values in line Eg. if any senator wasinvovled in conspiracy, could strike him off senator list Held office for 5 years After he was elected, would make sure all senators were worthy of staying there Built aqueducts Roads Responsible for letting up contracts to make this done So overlapped with the aedlie a bit Tribune of the Plebs Tribune from the Plebeians (the non- elites) Could check legistlation Veto legislation Right called intercession (right of recession) Could prevent magistrate from unlawfully abusing citizen (eg. without trial, put him to death) Inormal characters you acquire when puttng on positions, adds to your prestige: Auctoritas= authority Dignitas= dignity Except for the tribune of the plebs, was atristocrat dominated. --- Other civic bodies Senate= “body of old men” Were originally advisors to the kngs Retained this role throughout the republic as well Senate never acted in legislation directly But would debate laws, and peace treaties Then would pass a senatus consultum (advice of the senate) Agreement Would then send it to the appropriate assembly who would do the voting Also foreign policy laws would go through the senate Aristocrats had much dignitose and the other They could influence hugely the The 3 maor boeis (popular assemblies) Curiate assembly Early on was the popular assembly, the 1 onet Their major responsibilities gets transferred to the centuriare assembly later on And then they beome a symbolic place The name contia meant coing together of the people Centriate assembly Elections f all consls and praetors were carried out here When propose law, would sent to senate for debate, the senate would make recommendation, then would send that to the centuriate assemblyc Would elect representative, unlike inAthens (which had direct democracy) Where th senate met= the curia The pantheon Saepta lulia was where the centriate assembly met Those who met there weroriginally military officers The builing always had mikitary connotations Coiia tributa The other assembly Consuls represent the monarchy government The senate represents the oligarchic government Assemblies resemble the democracy They say the reason romes so good is because each check one another Keep each other in check --- Senate informally had lots of influence This was based on the patro- client system Was very subservient towards the patron There was lots more democracy going on because of the patron system The committee 「 ciomiti」 Public debate or rally= contio These all took place in the Rostra= speaking platform --- Acouple of breaks where we don’t understand why they happened, where the system above was not in place th Middle of 5 century Felt a need to write down their laws(not constitution, but just laws, what we can be charged, what the magistrates can do to us) Vir= man 10 guys decided to become tyrants For 2 years controlled things until What came out was the laws of the 12 tables The 1 law code as such Had things to do with private property laws Etc. First instance romans put things into laws --- Expansion into other places of italy Roman empire begins in this period= called roman imperialism Why romans became so imperialistic Mommsen= He argued that the romans were interested in they have more enemies on their border, so they needed to protect themselves And then you keep expanding like this nd 2 theory put forth by Harris in 1970s Romans ideologically Aristocrat competitive enrvironment = doing well one way was to do well in war Aristocratic romans wantd to go to war to get military glory Could come back to rome and celebrate a huge triumph (a huge parade, hand out money and spoils) Could gain political powers Economical gains= sack and gain enemy’s money Also for common soldiers getting a share of the spoils rd 3 theory why they were so aggressive and constantly at war The alliance system Rome crated little enpire in italy The simple fact they had soldiers kept people busy Our allies contributed troops to us To keep alliance going, wed have to get the soldiers to go to war[ There wa san annual levy of soldiers every spring, which shows you the ideology they had --- Conflicts: Colour coded the progression of roman power --- Battle of Lake Regillus 496 BC The romans were originally one of those latin cities When it grew in power Other roman cities grew afraid of rome Combined and fought rome Signed a treaty the foedus cassianum (formed the latin league) Rome would become the part of the latin league) Rome gains more and more power Gods castor and pollux came down and helped the romans win Temple of castor built later in his honour --- Exemplum= example When Livy gives examples of good and bad The idea was to promote roman virtues Wars between theAequi (more up north) and Vaslci (down south) Was magistrate, farmer, aristocrat The story is that they win out to Quncitiuss farm, Offered him dictatorship He won the war in a matter of weeks Went back and handed his fasces Surrendered his dictatorship Went back to farm and started ploughing again Doesn’t wanto keep power, become a tyrant Once he fulfills his role, hegoes back to farming One of Livy’s exemplum of how should act (hands back his power) Gaius= was 1 roman to jump over the walls Also saved one of his fellow romans during war So became an exmemplum in Livy Battle of Veii (really close to Rome
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