Class Notes (811,039)
Canada (494,452)
Classics (1,680)
CLA160H1 (318)

lec 8

17 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Yuriy Lozynsky

Lec 8 th Paper is due 8 ofAug Today themes will be very broad Just give you a cursory idea Lost of names and dates Just absorb more the developments and trends rather than the individual events Use the midterm study guide 350s- 146BC 146 BC is considered the end of Greek civilization? --- The actual reason for the war Athens was frightened of the empire (and so started the war) Major campaigns Effects of the war Stasis= means revolution (In the last 10 yearsAthens was in a mess) By the 350s, the Greeks had fought themselves to exhaustion --- To contextualize you= is a map Northern Greece will become very important Here is Macedonia Thrace (also important) We will see the aggression of Philip down to Greek mainland --- The origins and culture and ethnicity of the Macedonians Throughout the entire BronzeAge there was a continuous culture (single, unified, that shared same settlments and potter Because so far north, Mycenaeans did not influence Macedonians much Possibly that’s why theire not considered Greeks as such Archaelogically new development in settlement patterns, tools, Probably influence of the Dorians The Dorians that went down to the Peloponnesses may have been Macedonians? Post 1100, there were some burials Clearly of monarchs Showed heavy Frisian (inAsia Minor) influence Later there was Illyrian influence (west) in these tombs Outside influence shaping what Macedonia would become Also hear from Herodotus story that an exile fromArgos (Dorian Greek city) Named Perdicas? Went to Macedonia and was a shephered originally Took power as king established a dynasty At 650 there was change in Macedonian culture Tenemidae ---- During Persian war period Macedonian were not politically unified, there were tribes, could not organize defence when perisan forces came through The king was calledAlexander There were other areas of Greece that surrendered Thebans also surrendered to Persians and fought for them The Mends (Persians) The evil greeks who had medized and gone over (included the Macedonians) Macedomes in Hesiods works and days Hesiod considerd the Macedonians as Greeks Herodotus was also a ethnographer (interested in ethnicity and languages of other peoples) Herodotus says Macedonians are Greeks --- Macedonian language Unclear Greek authors never actually say if they spoke greek, a separate language, orr a dialect of greek Linguistics say it was indo- European But some say it’s a separate branch of indo- Europoean (connected to Greek but of a different family) Implied from Greek writers that it was like a dialect of Greek (like Dorian, Ionian) Atablet Contains lots of elements that contained lots of Greek Now, many think that Macedonians did not speak Greek When Philip tried to sell himself as a Greek, it was thus a great task for him --- Philip There was a Macedonian king, but not as powerful as youd expect More or equally powerful were the neighbouring regional powers King had to work closely with these differny tribes Greeks in south got rid of their kings Spartans had some kings But in Macedonia it was a monarchy (ther was assembly, but it didn’t vote) It was KING Philip --- His first task was to conquer and bring these regional chieftains under control Eg. marriage alliances Warfare? Bribery Philip was a savvy politician Understood this would be diplomacy plus military (this was how he secured his position) Continues to be a very savvy politician Very eager to then start expanding His first major campaign was to expand his influence into northernAdgean His first target wasAmphipolis (an important port in the north) He also invades a few other areas nd TheAthenians had reemerged in the 2 Athenian league (reasserted influence in north Aegean) So when Philip tried to expand He was messing with theAthenians Demosthenes inAthens: Denounces Philip Tries to convince the assembly that he will threaten us directly Already threatening the fringes of our empire No one listened to him It was then too late Philip seizes these areas (in different dates) --- MILITARY INNOVATIONS Was fabulous military innovator (as well as savvy politician) Story= Philip was sent to Thebes when he was a young man Philip was a pupil of Panenmondas? Develops new phalanx called a syntagma (which was a square) 16 ranks deep and 16 ranks across the front There were professional officers in the ranks themselves To keep the soldiers in line Not as deep in the Theban [phalanx But was more powerful and more mobile And with generals involved, there would be some maneuvering involved Not just pushing action in the phalanx The battle of Gaugamela On youtube Other development= instead of the thrusting spear the hoplites carried Was the 15 feet long spear called the Sarissa Created more distance from the enemy front Also allows the Ahedgehog coming at you Innovative, successful formation The cavalry he develops is also very good The Greeks didn’t use cavalry very much Tended to be used by the wealthy aristocrats Theyd use cavalry to emphasize their aristocracy Philip introduced heavy cavalry units Heavily armed Were called the “companions” Alexander was commanding the “compoanians” a unit when he was around 16 Could become a wedge and attach that way Phalanx awas his anvil and the cavalry would be his hammer Instead of just relying on the phalanx, would try to hold the enemy and sustain the front Then send the cavalry and try to break through the enemy line Philip also used slingers and javelin men Was a professional army Very well trained, good soldiers Later in 168BC Greek coalition against romans Thcalled Paulus (defeated the last big army, defeated the romans who camei n in 2 nd century BC?)” Roman general says that this Macedonian military was frightening Gives a sense of how scary it was --- Involvement in Greece Later in the decade he moves into Thessaly Was actually invivted into Thessaly who was fighting a civil war Helps them win He was let to become the head of their league (league of Thessaly) gives him much support in northern Greece Another product of poeloponnesian league was that many regional leagues started developing At one point theAthenians were involved with the Chalchideans One of the Philip asked for help Invigted to help the Chalcideans, does not leave Dissolves this league later Continues to move south --- TheAmphictyonic league Area around Delphi League of cities around Delphi that was supposed to defend people from invading it Sacred wars involved the land around Delphi The Phoecians had invaded Delphi (was in control of the land) rd Amphictyoinic league invites Philip in the 3 of these sacred wars And he does not leave afterwards Gets more resources, better reputation Support politically Around 346 BC Philip moves down and camps out around the border of Boeotia Attica was not much further down Starts threatening Boetia Compels Thebes (at the end of their hegemony) decides to ally withAthens against Philip Philip actually withdraws from theAthenians and Thebans But claims some more land and also retains position in Thessaly (takes even more territory) Military aggressor, but also tried to portray himself as diplomat Knows when to use diplomacy Signed something with theAthenians and Thebans later on --- 348 BC Philip also has support by a fleet Seizes a grain fleet Athenians no longer aggressive? 348 BC The battle of Chaeconaea HeAthenians and some Peloponnesian states combine against Philip Eg.Athns, thebes, Corinth Obliterated the greek army at this battle Spartans not involved because they had already “lost:” all their power Alexander was 16 yars old in command of one of the cavalry units them It was the end of classical greece Then we get the Hellenistic period That was the end of Greek independence (348 BC) for a very long time --- That was the military side Now Philip is now in control of Greece The diplomat comes out Instead of bullying the greek states unlike the spartas did Goes to great lengths to be diplomatic Didn’t punishAthnians or Thebans, let lots of states retain autonomy as long as supplied tax and ships and army men Was very aware this would help him lots Promoted himself as leader of pan-hellenism (different periods and institutions ha tried for pan-hellenism) 347 BC Calls the staets to court Everye signed the treaty as members of the league of Corinth Philip would be head of, but includes all the other major states Find an
More Less

Related notes for CLA160H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.