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lec 12

16 Pages

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Yuriy Lozynsky

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, Lec 12 Roman revolution (period) st Civil war (1 of 2) 133- 44 BC Last lecture: Duties of the governor (was either praetor or consul) Led to lots of corruption in the provinces Struggle of orders New class of nobilis And the concept of the nobilis homo Rome was techinically a representative democracy Unofficial system (clientele system) --- 1 civil war in 1 century BC= Marius vs Sulla Ashort but bloody social war We end today with the 4 caesars demise? --- Roman revolution Focuses on events and institutions But on roman revolution the paradigm shifts We focus on individuals (politicians) The events and wars will form the background these individuals Lots of literary evidence was from later centuries Lots of evidence come from biographies (by Plutarch esp) Consulship and senate are becoming ineffective Powerful politicians rising and beginning to control things Roman revolution Violence introduced in roman politics at mass level Would do anything to pursue their own goals Starts with the Gracchi brothers The end of conquest (end of 2 century) Lots of wealth and slave labour towards the patricians Senatorial class buy lots of land, create estate farms called latifundia Other side of coin Urban poor and peasant farmers becoming displaced They were fighting in army Winning slaves, money, territory Came back to italy, had no more farmsteads Lots of tension The Gracchi emerge There was a certain wealth qualification to serve in the legion Fall below that criterion Loss of manpower for serving in the army So there was a crisis Populares Term connected to plebs Draw power base from outside support (from the people) Worked through the plebeian assembly Bring more economy for plebeian class In favour of extending citizenship to everyone in italy during the civil war?> Optimates The best guys Want things run from the senate Opposed populares Lots of wealth Networks of clientele to rely on and get things done For restting roman citixeenship to where it is already, during the civil war These 2 are not political parties Tend to be split on specific issues, unlike modern politicians Not exactly like political parties today Mos maiorun= the custom of our ancestors Rome never had a formal constitution Everything depended on people collectively agreeing to do certain things Not to do things over a certain point People disregard this during roman revolution Concordia ordinum= termed by Cicero What the roman state should ideally look like according to him Avery strong senate directi policiy in the republic And magistrates only acting out what the senate would say Lets get back to mos maiorum --- Republican system breaks down People start stepping out of the mos maiorum --- The famous mother of the Gracchi The Gracchi were aristocrats Roman names have 3 names st 1 name= your first name 2 name= family name 3 name= cognomen? Nickname, some feature about yourself Their sister married to ScipioAfricanus The family was well connected st Tiberius considered to be best order of his day (eg. received 1 class education) When he becomes tribune in 133 he proposed a land reform bill Meant to restrict land holding to fairly large amount, but still a finite amount Take excess and redistribute the excess land to the urban poor Give them land and work (have income and farm) So they could serve in army again Relieve social tension, and solve military crisis Tried to break up latifundia --- this would hurt… Vehemently opposed to his land scheme So they try to block him with other tribunes There were 10 tribunes of the plebs But lots of them were in pocket of senate and were being controlled Losing land and authority Tribuneship was only a 1 year office Tiberius ignores mos maiorum ( because he runs for tribuneship again) Senate tried to put up a candidate against him The senate had sent the mob out to directly kill Tiberius Or to suppress him But sending mob out was itself violating tradition (mos maiorum!) Extreme violence After his death Scipio Leading senatorial member Quashed the legislation Land reform bill goes by the wayside Senatus consultum ultimum= emergency Violence introduced for political aims The younger brother Gaius comes in Himself, Gaius, and Tiberius’father in law Gets elected in 123 BC Makes alliance with the Equestrians (lower level nobility, very powerful because of their wealth) Equestrians maintained it was good (it was called tax farming) Roman government didn’t want to collect taxes directly Every year theyd hold a tax Equestrians called publicana would bid for If they won theyd pay the roman state the tax revenue Runs for tribune again Relected in 122 as tribune rd Tries to run for a 3 time Senate disapproved Passed a ultimum= gave one of the consuls unlimited power to take care of the situation Lots fall by the wayside Bring cheap grain to the roman people Cognomen may have been restricted to atristocracy Plebeians may have had 2 names Marius only had 2 names So plebeians may have only had 2 names --- Numidian king called Jugurtha (his face is on the coin) Jugurtha attacks his brother who was allied with roman troops Defeats his brother Reasserts himself in Numidia Roman consul sent down to negotiate Treaty set out Immediately outcries with bribery and corruption Given him a favourable treaty even though Jugurtha was against Rome Actually flees and goes back down to Numidia Marius gets elected consul Would go down and defeat Jugurtha Unable to Mariuss one of his subordinate officres was Sulla Boccus was king of Mauretania (see map) West of Numidia Surrenders to Sulla Issues coinage to advertise it Salllust wrote a history of the Jugurthian war Thucicyan historian (cut through rhetoric, get to the actual things) The senate had become totally ineffective at this point We have to rely on powerful individuals to get things done Marius takes credit for having won the war Jugurtha was murdered in roman prison Because of his military success and Elected consul 5 time in a row, 6 times in total Popularity grows when he defeats 2 tribes Who caused lots of panic Came from up north Defeated them inAquae Sextiae and Vercellae Marius Makes alliance with the equestrians Against the optimates Forms power from his popularity and equestrians The important thing he did was that he completely got rid of the property qualification As long as had roman citizenship could be in military State paid them for equipment Gave them wages for their services Military became an employment profession Soldiers become much more loyal to their generals Who could give them land and spoils after winning wars Land bill to solidify land for his soldiers In 100 he marches into senate with soldiers Brings soldiers into senate and forces them to pass this bill --- The social war Made all these classifications of citizenship during the municipalization of italy Afew lectuers back Allied states left out when more wealth were pouring into Not given roman citizenship at all Tensions of Gracchi were still there Anew tribune revives a new version of the land reform bill The senate defeated the bill This angers the Italian allies Who band together and propose to form their own new state called Italia Their capital was in Samnium Tried to frame themselves as the real italians While the romans were upstarts were upstarts in Latium Actually form their own troops’ Started issuing coinage Issued by the marsic confederation? Personified italy on the coin (human face) On the coin is an oscan word= native word for Italia New government for Italia Finally romans Lex Julia (cousin of Julius Caesar) proposed this All Italian allies who had stayed loyal to rome would be given full citizenship Enemies of rome of surrenedered immendiately could have full italian citizenship Next bill Every citizen of italy who was not a slave could register with a praetor to get full roman citizenship Next year lex Pompeia Extends roman citizenship to everyone who lives south ? of Po Sulla makes his name in the social war Was realy successful : Results of
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