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Reference Guide

English Grammar - Reference Guides

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ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1-55080-570-3 1
TM
permacharts
PA RTS OF SPEECH
ADJECTIVES
• Describe nouns and pronouns
• Answer several questions:
Which one? Whose? What kind?
How many?
Example: The laughing students threw
wet snowballs at each other.
• Adjectives have comparative (wetter)
and superlative (wettest) forms
• Usually precede the nouns they modify
ADVERBS
• Add or modify meaning of verbs,
adjectives or other adverbs
• Answer several questions:
How? When? Where?
Example: Yesterday, the principal
angrily scolded the students.
• Usually end in -ly
• May either precede or follow the
modified word
ARTICLES
• Help to define nouns
Examples: The manager verbally
abused a female employee. • I wasted
an hour at the meeting.
• The articles a, an are indefinite
• The article the is definite
• Nouns that begin with a consonant
(except silent h) are preceded by a;
nouns that begin with a vowel
(except hard u) are preceded by an
CONJUNCTIONS
• Connect words, phrases, and clauses
within sentences
Example: The principal and the parents
argued, but the student kept quiet.
• Some conjunctions (like, however,
but, moreover) also show the
relationship between ideas
INTERJECTIONS
• Show surprise or emotion
Example: Yes! Let’s do it!
• Not acceptable in formal writing
• Usually involve an exclamation mark (!)
PREPOSITIONS
• Link words between a noun
(pronoun) and another word in the
sentence
Example: According to school policy,
the students must be supervised during
school.
• Never change in form
VERBS
• Express an action, state of being,
occurrence or condition
Example: This is the first time that we
have evaluated all of the students.
• Form may change to reflect person
and tense (past, present, future)
• Agree with the subject in person and
number (singular or plural)
• A sentence is a group of words that can stand
on its own as a completed thought; it begins
with a capital letter and ends with a period,
question mark or exclamation mark
• Includes at least one subject and verb; either
the subject or its verb may be omitted if its
presence is understood
Example: Don’t blame me! (the subject you
is understood)
SENTENCE STRUCTURE
Simple: One independent clause with a subject
and verb (Fish swim.)
Compound: Two or more independent clauses
connected by a comma and a coordinating
conjunction, or by a semicolon (We expect Bob
to sign, but we are not sure that he will.)
Complex: One independent clause and at least
one dependent clause (When you are finished
the chart, [dependent clause] bring it to my
desk. [independent clause])
Compound: Two or more independent clauses
and at least one complex dependent clause
(He must agree, [independent] because if he
disagrees, [dependent] we’ll lose. [independent])
INTENTION
Declarative: Conveys information or makes a
factual statement (Joan Riley is the top student in
our class.)
Interrogative: Asks a direct question
(Who is Joan Riley?)
Imperative: Issues a command
(Go get Joan Riley.)
Exclamatory: Declarative sentence stated with
emotion (We need Joan Riley!)
VE RB FORMS
Verbs change their forms to indicate time distinctions (tense)
• The six tenses are present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect,
and future perfect
• All verb tenses are derived from the principal parts of the verb; they are
present, past, and present perfect (past participle)
Regular verbs form the past and past perfect by adding the suffixes -ed, -d,
-t; irregular verbs do not have a regular pattern for changing verb forms
Tense To Cough To Believe
present I cough I believe
past I coughed I believed
future I will cough I will believe
present perfect I have coughed I have believed
past perfect I had coughed I had believed
future perfect I will have coughed I will have believed
Tense To Write To See
present I write I see
past I wrote I saw
future I will write I will see
present perfect I have written I have seen
past perfect I had written I had seen
future perfect I will have written I will have seen
English Grammar
English Grammar
VERB VOICE
• A verb is in the
active voice
when the subject is the performer of the action (The
robber broke into our home.)
• A verb is in the passive voice when the subject is the
receiver of the action (Our home was broken into
by a robber.)
TRANSITIVE VS. INTRANSITIVE VERBS
Transitive: Requires a direct object to complete its meaning
Example: He wrote the letter. (letter is the direct object of
the verb wrote)
Intransitive: Does not require an object to complete its meaning
Examples: The children played. • The waiter served.
FINITE VS. NON-FINITE VERBS
Finite: Main verb of a sentence
Subject to changes in form to reflect person (I see, he sees),
tense (I go, I went), and number (he writes, they write)
Example: The girl called, and her mother answered her.
Non-finite: Verbals that function as nouns, adjectives or adverbs
• When the -ing form of a verb is used as a noun, it is a
gerund
Example: Seeing is believing.
REGULAR VERBS
IRREGULAR VERBS
© 1997-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
www.permacharts.com
SE NT EN CE TYPES
2nd EDITION

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Description
TM permacharts English Grammar English Grammar 2nd EDITION PARTS OF SPEECHSENTENCE TYPES A sentenceis a group of words that can stand DJECTIVESONJUNCTIONS AC on its own as a completed thought; it begins Describe nouns and pronouns Connect words, phrases, and clauses with a capital letter and ends with a period, within sentences question mark or exclamation mark Answer several questions: Which one? Whose? What kind?Example: The principal andthe parents Includes at least one subject and verb; either How many?argued, butthe student kept quiet. the subject or its verb may be omitted if its presence is understood Example:The laughingstudents threw Some conjunctions (like, however, Example:Dont blame me! (the subject you wetsnowballs at each other.but, moreover) also show the is understood) relationship between ideas Adjectives have comparative(wetter) and superlative(wettest) forms SENTENCE STRUCTURE NTERJECTIONS I Usually precede the nouns they modify Simple:One independent clause with a subject Show surprise or emotion and verb (Fish swim.) ADVERBS Example: Yes! Lets do it! Compound:Two or more independent clauses Add or modify meaning of verbs, Not acceptable in formal writing connected by a comma and a coordinating adjectives or other adverbs Usually involve an exclamation mark (!) conjunction, or by a semicolon (We expect Bob Answer several questions: to sign, but we are not sure that he will.) PREPOSITIONS How? When? Where? Complex:One independent clause and at least Example: Yesterday, the principal one dependent clause (When you are finished Link words between a noun scolded the students. angrilythe chart, [dependent clause] bring it to my (pronoun) and another word in the desk. [independent clause]) sentence Usually end in ly Compound:Two or more independent clauses Example: According toschool policy, May either precede or follow the and at least one complex dependent clause the students must be supervised during modified word (He must agree, [independent] because if he school. disagrees, [dependent] well lose. [independent]) ARTICLES Never change in form Help to define nouns INTENTION VERBS Examples: Themanager verbally Declarative:Conveys information or makes a Express an action, state of being, abused a female employee. I wasted factual statement (Joan Riley is the top student in occurrence or condition anhour at themeeting. our class.) Example: This isthe first time that we The articles a,anare indefinite Interrogative:Asks a direct question haveevaluatedall of the students. The article theis definite(Who is Joan Riley?) Form may change to reflect person Imperative:Issues a command Nouns that begin with a consonant and tense (past, present, future) (Go get Joan Riley.) (except silent h) are preceded by a; Agree with the subject in personand nouns that begin with a vowel Exclamatory:Declarative sentence stated with number (singular or plural) (except hard u) are preceded by anemotion (We need Joan Riley!) VERB FORMS Verbschange their forms to indicate time distinctions (tense) VERB VOICE The six tenses are present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect, A verb is in the and future perfect active voice All verb tenses are derived from the principal parts of the verb; they are when the subject is the performer of the action (The present,past,and present perfect (past participle) robber brokeinto our home.) Regularverbs form the past and past perfect by adding the suffixesed, d, A verb is in the passive voicewhen the subject is the t; irregular verbs do not have a regular pattern for changing verb forms receiver of the action (Our home was brokeninto by a robber.) REGULAR VERBS TRANSITIVE VS. INTRANSITIVE VERBS TenseTo CoughTo Believe presentI coughI believeTransitive: Requires a direct object to complete its meaning pastI coughedI believed Example: He wrote the letter. (letteris the direct object of futureI will coughI will believe the verbwrote) present perfectI have coughedI have believed Intransitive: Does not require an object to complete its meaning past perfectI had coughedI had believed Examples: The children played. The waiter served. future perfectI will have coughedI will have believed FINITE VS. NONFINITE VERBS IRREGULAR VERBS Finite: Main verb of a sentence TenseTo WriteTo See Subject to changes in form to reflect person(I see, he sees), tense(I go, I went), and number(he writes, they write) presentI writeI see pastI wroteI saw Example: The girl called, and her mother answered her. futureI will writeI will see Nonfinite: Verbals that function as nouns, adjectives or adverbs present perfectI have writtenI have seen When the ingform of a verb is used as a noun, it is a past perfectI had writtenI had seen gerund future perfectI will have writtenI will have seen Example: Seeing is believing. 19972012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1550805703 1 www.permacharts.com
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