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Reference Guide

English Grammar - Reference Guides

4 pages344 viewsFall 2015

Department
Computer Science
Course Code
CSC495H1
Professor
all
Chapter
Permachart

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ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1-55080-570-3 1
TM
permacharts
PA RTS OF SPEECH
ADJECTIVES
• Describe nouns and pronouns
• Answer several questions:
Which one? Whose? What kind?
How many?
Example: The laughing students threw
wet snowballs at each other.
• Adjectives have comparative (wetter)
and superlative (wettest) forms
• Usually precede the nouns they modify
ADVERBS
• Add or modify meaning of verbs,
adjectives or other adverbs
• Answer several questions:
How? When? Where?
Example: Yesterday, the principal
angrily scolded the students.
• Usually end in -ly
• May either precede or follow the
modified word
ARTICLES
• Help to define nouns
Examples: The manager verbally
abused a female employee. • I wasted
an hour at the meeting.
• The articles a, an are indefinite
• The article the is definite
• Nouns that begin with a consonant
(except silent h) are preceded by a;
nouns that begin with a vowel
(except hard u) are preceded by an
CONJUNCTIONS
• Connect words, phrases, and clauses
within sentences
Example: The principal and the parents
argued, but the student kept quiet.
• Some conjunctions (like, however,
but, moreover) also show the
relationship between ideas
INTERJECTIONS
• Show surprise or emotion
Example: Yes! Let’s do it!
• Not acceptable in formal writing
• Usually involve an exclamation mark (!)
PREPOSITIONS
• Link words between a noun
(pronoun) and another word in the
sentence
Example: According to school policy,
the students must be supervised during
school.
• Never change in form
VERBS
• Express an action, state of being,
occurrence or condition
Example: This is the first time that we
have evaluated all of the students.
• Form may change to reflect person
and tense (past, present, future)
• Agree with the subject in person and
number (singular or plural)
• A sentence is a group of words that can stand
on its own as a completed thought; it begins
with a capital letter and ends with a period,
question mark or exclamation mark
• Includes at least one subject and verb; either
the subject or its verb may be omitted if its
presence is understood
Example: Don’t blame me! (the subject you
is understood)
SENTENCE STRUCTURE
Simple: One independent clause with a subject
and verb (Fish swim.)
Compound: Two or more independent clauses
connected by a comma and a coordinating
conjunction, or by a semicolon (We expect Bob
to sign, but we are not sure that he will.)
Complex: One independent clause and at least
one dependent clause (When you are finished
the chart, [dependent clause] bring it to my
desk. [independent clause])
Compound: Two or more independent clauses
and at least one complex dependent clause
(He must agree, [independent] because if he
disagrees, [dependent] we’ll lose. [independent])
INTENTION
Declarative: Conveys information or makes a
factual statement (Joan Riley is the top student in
our class.)
Interrogative: Asks a direct question
(Who is Joan Riley?)
Imperative: Issues a command
(Go get Joan Riley.)
Exclamatory: Declarative sentence stated with
emotion (We need Joan Riley!)
VE RB FORMS
Verbs change their forms to indicate time distinctions (tense)
• The six tenses are present, past, future, present perfect, past perfect,
and future perfect
• All verb tenses are derived from the principal parts of the verb; they are
present, past, and present perfect (past participle)
Regular verbs form the past and past perfect by adding the suffixes -ed, -d,
-t; irregular verbs do not have a regular pattern for changing verb forms
Tense To Cough To Believe
present I cough I believe
past I coughed I believed
future I will cough I will believe
present perfect I have coughed I have believed
past perfect I had coughed I had believed
future perfect I will have coughed I will have believed
Tense To Write To See
present I write I see
past I wrote I saw
future I will write I will see
present perfect I have written I have seen
past perfect I had written I had seen
future perfect I will have written I will have seen
English Grammar
English Grammar
VERB VOICE
• A verb is in the
active voice
when the subject is the performer of the action (The
robber broke into our home.)
• A verb is in the passive voice when the subject is the
receiver of the action (Our home was broken into
by a robber.)
TRANSITIVE VS. INTRANSITIVE VERBS
Transitive: Requires a direct object to complete its meaning
Example: He wrote the letter. (letter is the direct object of
the verb wrote)
Intransitive: Does not require an object to complete its meaning
Examples: The children played. • The waiter served.
FINITE VS. NON-FINITE VERBS
Finite: Main verb of a sentence
Subject to changes in form to reflect person (I see, he sees),
tense (I go, I went), and number (he writes, they write)
Example: The girl called, and her mother answered her.
Non-finite: Verbals that function as nouns, adjectives or adverbs
• When the -ing form of a verb is used as a noun, it is a
gerund
Example: Seeing is believing.
REGULAR VERBS
IRREGULAR VERBS
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SE NT EN CE TYPES
2nd EDITION
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