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Lecture 5

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University of Toronto St. George
Earth Sciences
Christine Burton

Lecture 5 J hydrosphere May 27, 2010 Water reservoirs - Water on earth is found in several reservoirs: oceans, cryosphere (ice caps and glaciers), groundwater, lakes, soils, atmosphere, rivers, and living organisms - The average length of time that water stays in a particular reservoir is called the residence time The hydrologic cycle - Water constantly moves from reservoir to reservoir - Water in ocean evaporates into the atmosphere o It then condenses into clouds and then rain down back into the ocean or blown onto land - Water that evaporates from trees go through evapotranspiration - Some water runs off the land and makes it back into the stream, lake, ocean - Some water gets absorbed into the soil and becomes groundwater - Most freshwater is tied up in ice - Most of the tiny part of freshwater that is usable is in lakes Oceans - }Z}}ZZ[ZZ - Trenches are found at a convergent zone where one plate is subducting under the other - Structure: o 2 layers: Surface layer N Warmer because of solar radiation N Less dense because its warm Deep layer o The layers are separated by thermocline: depth interval where temperature gradient changes the greatest The stable layering of the ocean makes mixing between upper and deep ocean a slow process Ocean: Waves - Created by wind (that is created because of solar energy) - They develop because of the shear between the molecules of air in the wind and the molecules of water at the surface of the sea - Energy is transferred from the air to the water - Tsunami also cause waves Ocean: Tsunamis - Usually generated by the sudden displacement of the sea floor caused by an earthquake - Wavelengths of 100-200km; periods of 10-20min; speeds of up to 800kmh Ocean: Tides - Periodic tides are caused by the gravitational effects of the moon and the sun - If earth, moon, and sun are all lined up, the gravitational effects are the highest - If they are perpendicular, the gravitational effects are lowest - Opposite sides of the world experience opposite tidal effects Ocean: surface currents - Driven by atmospheric winds - Red circular patterns are called gyres - Bring warm water from the equator to the poles J distributing heat
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