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Lin Fang (12)
Lecture 2

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East Asian Studies
Lin Fang

Lecture 2 9/26/2013 10:19:00 AM  Pre Qin :  Quasi feudal= administrates places to subordinates  Problem= loyalty to king weakens over time  End of Eastern Zhou, the map of China disintegrated into a bunch of states, Map 2.1  A time of the warring states Masters/ philosophers:  Confucianism  Confucius, Mencius, Xunzi (Hsun Tzu)  Confucius o Interested in social order o Thought that the Zhou dynasty was the golden age and his hero was the duke of Zhou o Thought that Zhou was a model of government and order  Mencius and Xunzi had differing views on human nature  Taoism  Lao zi ( Lao Tzu), Zhuangzi ( Chuang Tzu)  The “way” can’t be described  Has this idea of “wuwei” =spontaneity and non interference, letting things follow their natural course  Zhuangzi= stands out because he uses satire against others o Uses Confucius to proves some of his points and uses humor to make his points o Shouldn’t take any category for granted o Death should not be feared o Disadvantage can be an advantage  Legalism  Han Feizi  Emphasis on the system of law and punishment  Is a set of procedures that can be applied systematically and consistently  Replaced aristocratic system with ranks that were based on performance  Mohism  Mozi  Accepted a few Confucius principles but challenged a lot of them too  Thought that the bonds of family were exaggerated  Believed that every person had their obligation to society  Hundred schools of thought (p.26-32)  Goal to get a ruler or other people to accepts their ideas Qin reforms of Shang Yang:  Shang Yang- minister  Population registration= allowed government to have reliable records of who had to pay taxes  Privatizaion of land and universal taxation= before land belonged to the king, farmers could claim small sets of clans  Nuclear families= pushed families to be smaller by having bigger families have more tax  Hereditary ranks dropped: 20 ranks awarded strictly on performance  Farmers also fought as soldiers formed most of the army  Groups of households= units of counties (xian)  Qin= first state to enforce these policies  Found a way to organize the state “Bureaucracy”  Helped Qin rise above the other states  More efficient way to run the state  The Shang Yang reforms  When First Emperor conquered the other states, his innovations:  After unifying China, came up with the word of “emperor”  Standardization of script  Connected the warring states walls together= great wall  Terra cotta soldiers  As soon as he came onto the throne, start making tombs  Tomb has bo
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