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Daniel Justice

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ÀpThe other is that which is not us for whatever reason, either by appearance, biology,
behaviour, culture belief, etc. This can be a neutral observation of difference, but very
often accompanies an assignment of value and significant to that difference
ÀpOthering is the act of defining oneself positively against the absolute difference of a
defined other. Such binaries are always attended by anxieties as the definitions are
unstable and in constant flux, as the categories of definition are generally arbitrary and
ÀpAside from one another, the most significant relationship humans have with ³others´ is
with animals, both wild and domesticated and particularly with other predatory mammals
ÀpAnxiety comes from both difference and from shared qualities such as family structures,
behaviours and physical responses
ÀpAnimals live among us, but they are not us
ÀpThey have their own minds and identities, and no matter how well we think we
understand them (or they understand us) we are still fundamentally alien to one another in
significant ways.
ÀpThe relationship of humans to animals is an unstable one
Àp^e too are animals and this fact elicits a primal anxiety
ÀpTerms used to other animals and either distinguished ourselves from them or highlight
our ³demeaning´ animal natures: bestial, beastly, animalistic, feral, catty, foxy, wolfish,
bearish, bitch, toad, etc.
ÀpIf we are animals, and the animals with whom we share our lives and the world are
similar to us, what does this kinship mean about our relationship with them/
ÀpTo acknowledge that kinship is to take particular degree of responsibility for the
ÀpAn Othering binary, wherein one group is marked by its proximity to wild natural or
primitive life, whereas, the other is defined by its distance from savagery and proximity
to the ³civilized´, ³advanced´ or ³sophisticated´ life
 !"#
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