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26 Sep 2010
Geology lecture 02: origin of rocks
Questions from the last lecture:
What are 2 aspects of doing science?
- test hypothesis Æ something we can answer
- observe, formulate, hypothesis, collect related data
What was the cosmic hypothesis and why did geophysics give it up?
Genetic field of the earth, for every body it produces a magnetic field because it rotates. Competing
Middle ages: stones were assigned magical powers t ^}]P]v}(ZoZ_vÆuo}}l
ex: onyx (tree tears),
stag tears, bezoar,
draconites, bufonites
University: was founded by scholars, independent of the state. Passing of knowledge t dictating
from the very first book
-- universities, founded by scholars, not church or state (intellectual independence) 1088 Bologna;
Paris, Padua, Oxford (~1096)
and Cambridge, Heidelberg 1385
Renaissance: 1450 Gutenberg & printing
Printing of books made ideas circulate. Big step for science. Ideas disseminated. Images & words.
books circulated among literate masses (before: rare handwritten copies) wood (later copper)
engravings allowed for beautiful pictures
Museums: collections of plants, animals, minerals Æ the 3 kingdoms of nature. Collected and
collections oneself
Leonardo DaVinci: 1452 t 1519. Self-taught artist, inventor, naturalist. Left notebooks, 5000
sheetsand sketches. Interested in geology; in particular river hydraulics. An observer: knew that
sediments form ordered piles near the seashore. He had a lot of ideas and a lot of papers but his
notebooks were not disseminated. He was left-ZvvÁ}]vu]}]uPX^Z}(Z]
]u_ÇovµÇXv^]}o_Zt great ideas but these were not discussed with
houghts on geology are dispersed in notebooks he was especially interested in river hydraulics
(canals, drying of marshes) argues that valleys are created by rivers, and mountains are destroyed by
rain and rivers
Agricola 1494 t 1555, Saxony
born Georg Bauer in Saxony attended university in Leipzig, Bologna, and Padua practised medicine in
Joachimsthal (a mining center, he worked
very courageously during the 1552-53 plague) Duke of Saxony was his patron
Lived in an area between Harz which was a rich area for mining. Very advanced in mining
technology. Miners were respected, proud, recognized. Possessed skills + technology
1. area between Harz mountains and Erzgebirge (=ore mountains)
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