Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (630,000)
UTSG (50,000)
Geography (500)
GGR100H1 (100)
Lecture 3

Lecture Three Notes


Department
Geography
Course Code
GGR100H1
Professor
Joseph Leydon
Lecture
3

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Cities of South America
Lecture Three
Overview
Total population: 374 million
Percent Urban Population: 81.6%
Annual Urban Growth: 0.12%
Most Urbanized: Venezuela (93.4%), Uruguay (92.0%), Argentina (90.1%)
Least Urbanized: Paraguay (56%), Ecuador (62.8%), Bolivia (64.2%)
Megacities (3); Number of cities of more than 1 million (38)
Understanding the Region
All but one country is over 60% urbanized with 5 countries over 80%
Three distinct spheres with a great deal of internal division-variance
Andean American (Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia)
oRapidly urbanizing region under fiscal constraints
oLarge indigenous population and mestizo populations with small European elite
oAlternative economy based upon informal economy and popular markets
Southern Cone Cities (Chile, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay)
oUrban and demographic transition in the mid-20th century, now intercity migration
oHeavy European ethnic composition as well as urban planning traditions
oProsperity with economic stagnation, social segregation and restive middle class
Portuguese American (Brazil)
oUrban growth shifting towards smaller, peripheral cities
oPortuguese colonial heritage and langugage/culture, as well as spatial patterns
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oImportant Afro-Brazilian population (black-white stratification)
Important Historical Events
Incredible indigenous urbanization
Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) paving the way for Spanish-Portuguese colonial pathways
Laws of the Indies (spatial and social segregation)
Debt Crisis
Informal Economy
Regular employment for many of the regional poor is elusive, and many public spaces are
dedicated towards the informal economy
Informal housing sector (shantytowns located around the unplanned urban periphery)
oPart of regional character and identity (City of God)
oDangerous materials, unsanitary conditions exasperated by climate, insecure land
tenure
oMany cities have begun to recognize and regulate settlements
Debt Crisis
Cities of the continent were the most aggressive in pursuing mid-century development
models (centralized industrial structure and infrastructure improvements towards economic
efficiencies), and incurred massive debt in the process
IMF (integrated debt structure) response was economic-political restructuring (cutting
services, opening up common market and resources to foreign investment/ownership),
resulting in real growth outstripping infrastructure
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