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GGR124 Lecture Notes

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Stephen Swales

GGR124 – Lecture #1 January 9 , 2013 The Macro View • Defining the ‘city’ or the ‘urban’ o Grid-iron pattern is that which we find in the system of North American mapping • Historical context • Contemporary context • City within a system of cities – the urban system The Micro View • Internal relationships within the ‘typical’ city o I.e., where you live – accessibility • How do cities work o Housing, housing decisions, housing market (sub-markets is what Toronto is comprised of) o Transit o Economic standpoint • City as a jigsaw puzzle o We look at the individual piece and analyze how each piece will fit together – how it influences other factors “Viewing where we live through the eyes of the urban geographer” –Geography is an eclectic discipline– 1 • If you don’t have linkages between cities, there wouldn’t be urbanization – there wouldn’t be any development o Cities are not islands Global finance centers  Toronto, New York & Hong Kong – interconnected Course Themes • Urbanization concepts and contexts • Origin and growth of cities, evolution of system of cities o Over time, trade has played an important role in the growth of our cities • Cities as centers of production, service delivery, innovation, and creativity • Housing – i.e., markets, types of housing… • City as a social space o Models of social interaction – how it influences “movement” of people o Models of segregation – i.e., in the city of Belfast (Northern Ireland) [religious] • Human interventions in cities o Transportation types o Urban planning o Influences upon the physical portion of the city • Governance and urban development ___________________________________________________________ _______ Defining The “Urban” • There is no formal definition for city o Subject of much debate and disagreement o The best we can do is understand • Louis Wirth (1938) – large, dense, relatively permanent settlements of socially heterogeneous people o There is DIFFERENCE • Lewis Mumford (1961) – cities were a fundamental cultural institution • Bunting and Filion (2010) – places of intense social interaction and exchange between strangers Urban Characteristics • Dense concentration (agglomeration) of people and activities • Proximity, density, and diversity are key characteristics o In the circumstance of technological advancements (Skype and so forth…), physical interaction is arguable – but more idea generation is the result of face-to-face interaction 2 Basic Concepts Urbanization • Shifting population balance between urban and rural areas • Proportion of the total population that is living in urban places (% urban) o About 80% of Toronto is urbanized – increasingly so Deurbanization (Counter-Urbanization) • Balance is shifting towards peripheral/rural areas • Rural population growth is higher than urban population growth Urban Hierarchy • Ordering (and often ranking) of urban places by population size (and/or functions performed o As of 2011 – Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver are ranked top 3 (in that order) o It is associated with power  largest economic sectors Metropolitanization • Metropolitan areas (the largest urban areas) are growing faster than smaller urban areas (population is shifting up the urban hierarchy) Suburbanization • Shifting between population balance between suburban portions of metropolitan areas and the rest of the country Measuring Urban Places Population • Minimum size of settlement or agglomeration • Minimum density • Relying on population alone can be problematic Economic Base • Minimum proportion of the labor force in non-agricultural occupations Administrative • Using some legal or administrative criteria • Defined by legislation • But, comparative research is difficult • Physical (and social) extent of the city can extend far beyond the administrative responsibility Functional • Reflect the ‘real’ extent of the urban influence • Census data expressed in terms of functional definition o MSA (Metropolitan Statistical Area)  in the United States o CMA (Census Metropolitan Area)  in Canada 3 GGR124 – Lecture #2 TH January 16 , 2013 Understanding “Urban Geography” • We understand/interpret the distribution of towns and cities o How cities evolved and why they are found, where they are found • Account for the differences and similarities between them and within them • Neighborhoods are dynamic entities – they are constantly evolving and changing like cities – just at different rates for different reasons • Gentrification – a dynamic that emerges in poor urban areas when residential shifts, urban planning, and other phenomena affect the composition of a neighborhood • Discipline is eclectic 2 Key Themes • Spatial distribution of towns and cities – system of cities • Internal structure of the city – city as a system Discipline of Urban Geography Descriptive • Recognition and description of the urban area’s internal structure – patterns and processes Interpretive • Examining how people understand and react to these patterns and processes Explanatory • Looks for the origins of these patterns and processes Approaches to Urban Geography Environmentalism • Dominant up to the mid 20 century • Relationship between people and their environment • “Site and situation studies” i.e. physical characteristics determine urban development • Urban Morphology – how urban areas have grown and changed over time • Recent work concentrates on the production, form, and design of urban areas Positivism • General paradigm shift in the 1950s • Human behavior is determined or influenced by scientific and universal laws • How scientific ‘laws’ produced observable patterns of urban activity or form ‘on-the-ground’ 4 • Two broad approaches – Ecological and Neo-classical Ecological  human behavior is based on ecological principles o Most powerful groups obtain the most advantageous place in a given space Neo-Classical  driving force was rationality o Homo-Economicus (economic man) or economic rationality of human behavior o Cost-minimization or benefits-maximization Behavioral & Humanistic • Emerged in the 1970s as a reaction to scientific determinism Behavioral • Focused on decision-making, on human behavior but in a ‘model-like’ way… still seeking generalizations Humanistic • Deeply subjective and complex relations between individuals and groups, and the places they exist • Techniques drawn from the humanities…e.g. use of film, writing, paintings, etc. Structuralism • Broad approach in the social sciences • Importance of social, economic, and political structures in society • Derived from the writings of Karl Marx • Approach was dominant in the 1970s and beyond mainly in response to social problems emerging in urban areas (esp. in the US) • Criticized because of the emphasis on ‘class’ – viewed as too limiting Postmodernism • Emerged in the late 1980s, early 1990s • Approach rejects notion that one perspective should hold sway • Emphasizes individual difference or multiple perspectives help us understand the urban area • Most visible impact is often seen in urban design, e.g. Chicago, Toronto, and Berlin • Criticism is that there is an endless range of possible interpretations for the city Scales of Analysis in Urban Geography World System of Cities 5 Neigh Cbitrhood National City System Region ________________________________________________________________ ________ The Origin of Cities • How and why did non-agricultural settlements arise? • How and why did those settlements become geographically concentrated? • How and why do some of these urban settlements grow to become larger than other settlements? Two Key Concepts Social Surplus • Production of basic goods over and above what is needed for subsistence o What you produce  what you eat  what you consume – if you have an excess, we see trade begin to happen and networks being created Agglomeration • Concentration of activities, people, networks of relationships in space What Generates the Social Surplus? • New technology • Environmental change – more increase in flooding or changes in water courses which changes the physical land • Changes in social organization • It is unlikely that any one factor holds sway, instead more of a gradual transition Why Do Some Settlements Grow Larger? Agglomeration Economies • Economic benefits accruing to concentration of activities in space 6 Two Broad Types: Localization • Close proximity to similar firms Urbanization • Locating in an urban environment o Access to (wireless) infrastructure o Information – universities, research establishments, etc. o Economies of scale – as it grows larger it becomes cheaper to produce Agglomeration Diseconomies • You get congestion occurring o Because it gets populated – urban decline Early Urban Development – to 5 Century AD • First cities emerged o 4000-3500 BC Mesopotamia o 3000 BC Nile Valley o 2500 BC Indus Valley o 2000 BC Yellow River o 200 BC Mexico and Peru • Generally, very early cities were small, in the range of 2,000-20,000 people • Largest of the ancient cities was Rome o Close to 1 million by 2 AD • Athens, Sparta on Greek mainland by 800 BC • Urbanism spread through Mediterranean from Greece • ‘Planned’ Greek cities developed a gridiron pattern o Adopted in North American system planning • Many Roman cities had this pattern, also o Square or rectangular town perimeter o 2 main cross-streets  E – W Decumanus  N – S Cardo Middle Period Urbanization th th • Slow growth of European cities 5 – 17 centuries Why? o Decrease in spatial interaction after Roman Empire fell – declined in the 4 century o Disruption of urban and rural interaction – no need for linkages because there was no trade o Increased isolation 7 • Over time, commerce expanded function of the city – Mercantilism – social structure • Power of capitalists reduced role of the state and cities became ‘industrial’ centers GGR124 – Lecture RD January 23 , 2013 Industrial And Post-Industrial Urbanization • Most significant urbanization occurred after industrial revolution – mid 1700s onwards th • 19 century cities were places of population concentration • Great Britain had the most urbanized population in the 1900s • Cities became more specialized as a result of market forces North American Urbanization • Much of the urbanization was the result of the colonization o By Spanish, French and English o Earliest settlements during Spanish occupation in South West, e.g. in Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, California • English colonization began in 1565 – Roanoke Is. NC • Dutch established Fort Orange (Albany) and New Amsterdam (New York) in the 17 century – trading posts th • Westward movement of population and urbanization in the 19 century • Borchert (1967) identifies 4 key phases in the development of the North American urban system • Phases shaped size and location of cities, in addition to their internal structure • Phases relate urban change to advances in technology, especially transportation Stage 1 – 1790 to 1830: Frontier Mercantilism • 1790 was first US census • Most urban places were on the Atlantic coast – NYC, Philadelphia, Boston, Halifax • Cities were commercial centers o Functioned as centers for hinterland o Manufactured goods coming from UK and lumber being harvested and sent to the UK  There wasn’t sufficient wood in the UK to build their ships for the Royal Navy • Little industry – some traditional crafts o Markets were almost immediate o No exporting to other cities 8  On a local basis – providing services to the locals o They lived in the “buildings” • True ‘walking’ cities o Typically 3 square miles o But you carried out your shit in the local area Stage 2 – 1830 to 1870: Early Industrial Capitalism • Steam technology esp. steamboat made trade possible o Allowed two way trade to take place o Allowed more efficient migration into the North American center • Cities, inland on rivers and lakes emerged – Pittsburgh, New Orleans, Cincinnati • Internal structure of cities changed • Emergence of CBD (Central Business District), and defined waterfront districts – where you have warehouses o You have slum houses near that – for lower income families  Poor quality housing • Emergence of ‘carriage suburbs’ o Omnibus – people paid to travel (only accessible to factory owners, political classes, etc.) o If you had the money to move out of the center of the city where crime took place, warehouses were situated, and so forth Stage 3 – 1870 to 1930: National Industrial Capitalism • Continent fully urbanized – Halifax to Los Angeles • Completion of railroad in 1869 • New centers emerged e.g., Seattle, Denver, Vancouver • Greater specialization among cities • Segregated land uses instead of mixed use o CBD (Central Business District) in highest cost location o Warehouses, factories, housing in least desirable sites Stage 4 – 1935 to Present: Mature Industrial Capitalism • General process of deconcentration and suburbanization • Rail hubs lost out to automobile and airplane • Emergence of Megalopolis o BosWash – Boston to Washington o SanSan – San Diego to San Francisco o ChiPitts – Chicago to Pittsburgh 9 ________________________________________________________________ ________ The Urban System • “A set of geographically bounded cities that share a number of common attributes, and that interact with each other to a more significant extent than cities outside the system” • No city exists or grows in a vacuum • Connections exist with other cities o Dependency  Mississauga depends on Toronto for economic activity o Competition  They could compete on the basis of property tax rates – Mississauga vs. Toronto o Transportation  If you have roads, you’ll see more back and forth between the cities – same goes for aerial transportation Types of Urban Systems • Geographic Scale o International / Global o National o Regional • Functional o Production-based o Consumer-oriented o Specialized-service Evolution of Urban Systems • ‘Classic’ o Social surplus and agglomeration • ‘Colonial’ e.g. Vance o External settlement selection o System moves towards interior to exploit raw materials  Doesn’t happen ‘organically’ o Eventually, system more functionally integrated and dependent, resembles ‘classic’ system National Urban Systems • Most cities accommodate a variety of functions • Many suggested classification schemes o Amount of employment in a particular center o Population size o Multivariate statistical analyses 10 • Allen Pred (1977) classified according to interdependence and closure • Settlement patterns often reflect different urban functions: o Linear pattern o Clustering pattern o Uniform / hierarchical pattern City-Size Distribution • “Distribution of cities/urban regions by population” • Directly or indirectly associated with: o Density of population and activity o Land values and housing prices o Traffic congestion o Air pollution o Levels of social diversity o Levels of amenity / diversity of services • Continuous or Rank-Size Distribution o Clear pattern between city-size and rank within the urban system • Discontinuous o Little relationship between city-size and rank Rank-Size Distribution City size and rank are directly linked – Rank-Size Rule (Zipf) • Population of any particular city is = the population of the city ranked #1, divided by the rank of the particular city …Or… • Population of city A is directly proportional to the population of the city ranked #1, divided by the rank of the particular city Population of a city (of a given rank) = Pr Population of City ranked #1 = P1 Rank of City = r P1 Pr = r Toronto CMA was ranked #1 in Canada’s urban system in 2011 ~ 5.6 million I.e., population of city ranked #8? P (8) = 5,600,000 / 8 P (8) = 700,000 The largest city in Canada in 2011 was Hamilton, with a population of 721,000 11 Types of Rank-Size Distributions 1. Perfect Rank-Size Distribution • Associated with a high level of economic development under capitalism • Perfect log ordering of cities by population 2. Primate City Distribution • Urban system dominated by one huge city, other cities insignificant • Associated with developing nations/colonial economies 3. Intermediate or Smaller City-Dominant Distribution • Transitional phase of urban system development • More common in large and highly fragmented nations Usefulness of Rank-Size Distribution • Analysis of temporal shifts in the urbanization process • Allows for comparisons of different urban systems in terms of: o Dominance of one city in the urban system o Metropolitan growth or decline o Density of economic linkages • Forecasting or planning GGR124 – Lecture #4 TH January 30 , 2013 Cities As Centers of Manufacturing & Service Delivery • Why is there a functional specialization among cities (especially manufacturing activity)? o Cambridge, Kitchener & Waterloo – functional specialization • Why are larger cities more economically diversified than smaller cities? • Why do some cities have concentrations of corporate headquarters while others do not? Cities As Centers of Manufacturing • Manufacturing is one of the most important components of urban growth o Venture capital that goes to support manufacturing – a lot of the services are there to go towards manufacturing Helps Explain: • Development of the urban system • The emergence of large industrial metropolises • Specialization of cities in particular industries o E.g., a technological city, steel manufacturing, etc. • Differences in rates of growth, due to specialization o E.g., a city that is manufacturing steel versus another in terms of their growth 12 Classifying Manufacturing Places Components or types of goods • Durable goods – automotive o Create more value added o More sustainable • Non-durable goods o Tend to be used up in production – using up steel Value-added • High value-added (technology, electronics, etc.) • Low value-added (textiles, furniture, etc.) Stage in the production process • Processing – of raw materials • Fabrication – of parts • Assembly/integration – of parts into finished product Manufacturing Location Alfred Weber’s location Theory • Developed in early 1900’s • ‘Least-cost’ theory of manufacturing location • Firms dependent on inputs found everywhere would locate closer to their market – I.e., market-oriented • Those dependent on specific raw materials would locate close to them – I.e., materials oriented • Ultimately, firms would seek the least-cost locations But, model is ‘idealized’ or ‘simplistic’ Characteristics of Global Economic System • Single world market with production for exchange • Spatial divisions in organization of the system • Existence of a defined Core and Periphery • Cycles of growth across the system globally • Importance of local economic actors FORDISM Post- Fordism (1940s – 1970s) (1970s to present) Industry Vertical Integration, Small firms, vertical disintegration, Concentration, growth of high-tech and producer Monopolistic services 13 Employment Manufacturing jobs, High unemployment, contraction of Stable unemployment manufacturing jobs, growth of private-sector services, flexibility in labor use Production Economies of Scale, Economies of scope, automation, mechanized production small batch production, fragmented industrial organization Labor Skills demarcation, Competitive, de-unionized, part- unionization, time and temporary contracts, employment protection local wage determination Space-Economy Regional Specialization, De-industrialization, emergence of Spatial division of labor high-technology production complexes Manufacturing Location Change • Production linkages have undergone technological and organizational change Major Changes Include: • Emergence of flexible production systems • Technology oriented • Flexible labor • Continuous innovation Specialized industrial networks • Industrial districts/Science Parks Just-in-time delivery systems • Supplies delivered in small quantities on schedule R&D & HQ facilities in metropolitan areas • Skilled labor/ ’Creative Class’ GGR124 – Lecture #5 February 6 , 2013 Global Cities • Globalization means highest-order functions concentrate in only a few key cities o There are linkages between local cities Places where the ‘command and control’ of the world economy is concentrated • Increasing concentration of HQs, financial services, etc. o Thinking of the big economic centers – you could probably count them on one hand 14 Characteristics of Global Cities Main sites for capital and investment • Of course, from a financial standpoint – investment in capital, real estate (commercial – skyscrapers, etc.), venture capital, banks, etc. • Location of highest-order functions/markets o Largest markets are in the US • Main destination points for migrants o Moving around within national system  They will use Toronto as a landing point – will then move outward from there  There’s plenty of internal migration to Toronto as well • Alberta and Saskatchewan are very well off from an economic viewpoint o So all of a sudden there is a shift in the migration patterns because most places now offer short-term employment – whereas Alberta that has oil as its predominant source, it is doing well • Most intense places for economic growth, innovation • Large and increasing social inequalities/polarization Hierarchy of Global Cities First Tier (New York, London, Tokyo) • Concentrations of the highest-order functions Second Tier (Toronto, Sydney, Chicago, Berlin, etc.) • Concentration of National and Regional HQs, high-tech manufacturing, producer service ________________________________________________________________ ________ Urban Land-Use Patterns • Urban environment is ever-changing – always dynamic Variety of scales • Individual households • Large scale infrastructure projects • Occurs through market forces and/or government planning • Theories/models help our understanding in why we get these changes in dynamics Morphogenesis • Analysis of town plan • Associated with the work of Michael Conzen – 1960s Landscapes divided in three elements 15 • Town Plan (street layout) – most resistant to change • Building Form – slow to change • Land-use – most susceptible to change Human Ecology • Chicago School of Ecology (1920s) o Takes ecological approach to understand how land actually changes • Ecological theories applied to land use o Competition o Invasion – of the most desired parts of the by particular land use (residential activity – will invade) o Succession o Dominance • Free market dictated types of land-use o If it’s more expensive, the bigger the return – if the CBD (Central Business District) expands, the competition for land increases • Natural areas evolve reflecting dominant homogenous social or ethnic character • The most expensive land is found in the downtown area and the further you move out, the lower the price goes o Condos are bigger the further you move outside of downtown – it is more expensive because of land-use in downtown Alonzo’s Bid-Rent Mann’s Model of British City 16 Harris & Ullman’s Multiple Nuclei Burgess’ Concentric Zone Model GGR124 – Lecture #6 February 13 , 2013 Approximately 77% of North Americans live in cities according to the UN • As population is growing, it is growing in urban areas U.S Bureau of the Census – the projected average annual rate of natural increase per 1,000 populations: 1995 to 2025 • The states of greatest growth – received the largest number of migrants – is in the west and mid-west o These states are predominantly industrial The CMA population growths in Ontario; 2001-2006 • Barrie 19.2 – it is on the edge of the GTA Population Growth In The GTA • GTA population has increased by 20% over last 10 years (850,000 people) • Every 6 to 10 years GTA has to provide room for 600,000 people Population Density • Equates population growth with urban development o Is the city sprawling outward or are piling people in condos? • “…The number of people per hectare, or acre, of land within an urban area” o Is it clustered or spread out? • If urban population is growing and the density remains unchanged, then we know the SIZE of the urban area is growing • AND, the increase in the urban area is accounted for by housing 17 The greatest population density appears to be in the bigger cities in Ontario and Quebec – roughly 50 people per km 2 Population Density – US vs. Canada • In US, metropolitan areas consume land at greater rates than rate of population increase • Population densities tend to be much higher in Canada • Densities in the GTA in 2000 were 31 people per hectare (18 per hectare in Chicago) Urban Sprawl Defined as “low density development that is beyond the edge of urban services and employment” • Synonymous with all that is bad about new residential and commercial development “…Cookie-cutter houses, wide, treeless, sidewalk-free roadways, mindlessly curving cul-de-sacs, a streetscape of garage doors… Or, worse yet, a pretentious slew of McMansions (all look the same), complete with obligatory gatehouse. You will not be welcome there, now would you ever have any reason to visit its monotonous moonscape” – Suburban Nation (2000) Urban Sprawl – ‘Causes’ • Pace of urban development and ‘sprawl’ increased from 1950s Demand for housing increased as a result of the ‘American Dream’ • Social ideal of post-war era of owning your own home • Fuelled by federal and state policy Supply of housing increased to meet this demand • New building materials and work processes o Wood framing became the norm – brick foundation was the past • Task-specific work crews o Instead of having a handful of people coming to work on the house, you would have a staged construction with specific carpenters, plumbers, etc. US federal government influence • Interstate Highway Act 1956 • Cities expanded along interstate arteries • Creation of automobile dependent suburbs 18 Urban Sprawl – Consequences & Mitigation Consequences of Sprawl • Traffic congestion • Work/life balance disruption  mantra of working to live • Air and water pollution • Loss of farmland • Property tax increases Mitigating Sprawl Provincial/State and Municipal Policy • Transportation • Environment • Growth management • Planning Edge Cities Joel Garreau (1991) in Edge City: Life On The New Frontier Concentrated residential/employment developments in the suburbs Key Components • Office space • Retail development (usually ‘big’-box) • Residential What Is Housing? Basic need of human existence – we need some form of protection – whether it be shelter, single family home, rental accommodation, under a street under a bridge, etc. • Household’s single largest expenditure – when markets were stable that was the model 1 o You don’t want your rent exceeding of your income 3 • Allows separation from public/private lives • Differentiation on basis of tenure – to hold (housing in different ways) • Gives rise to Owner-Occupied versus Renter o Neighborhoods with renters have different social connections; are typically less stable or could just be on the verge of transitioning Differentiate between public vs. private housing • And/or by pricing mechanism (conveyance) o Market or non-market • The up-shut – whether occupied by renter or owner, housing is a commodity 19 Housing Submarkets Access to the housing market varies across society • Submarkets ~ urban housing market is not uniform Submarkets are localized and can be organized by tenure, type, location, income, ethnicity, etc. Factors Shaping Housing Submarkets • Supply restrictions – will drive up the prices  can influence structure of the market • Accessibility restrictions – walking distance to a particular destination (schooling, ttc, bus, shopping centers, etc.) o Housing will look the same in a neighborhood BUT accessibility will dictate the price – it tends to skyrocket • Neighborhood restrictions – will convey a certain set of characteristics that happen to be in demand • Institutional restrictions • Racial, ethnic, class restrictions – seeing signs like no Blacks, Irish o Limits accessibility to that market • Information restrictions – the assumption is that everyone has a computer or an insider in the Real Estate Board; varying times, each of them will have an influence – never assume that a neighborhood is stable across any urban development Components Of Neighborhood Change Neighborhoods are never static – it is a process of change (constant state) Investment/Disinvestment
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