Class Notes (839,081)
Canada (511,183)
Geography (975)
GGR124H1 (189)


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Damian Dupuy

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Lecture#1 : Introduction, Concepts and Context Definitions of URBAN o Subject of much debate and disagreement o Louis Wirth (1938)- cities are large (take up space) , dense (populated), relatively permanent settlements of socially heterogeneous people o Lewis Mumford (1961)- cities were a fundamental cultural institution o Bunting and Filion (2010)- places of intense social interaction and exchange between strangers Characteristics of Urban - Urban is a dense concentration (agglomeration) of people and activities - Proximity, density, and diversity are key characteristics Distance decay: you interact less the further away you move from it • Urbanization o Shifting population balance between urban and rural areas o Proportion of the total population that is living in urban place (Census: measure population change over time, 81% of Canadian population lived in cities, has grown significantly over the last 100 yrs) • Deurbanization (reverse urbanization) o Balance is shifting towards peripheral/rural areas o Rural population growth is higher than urban population growth o Growth rates are higher in the city than of outside the city. • Urban Hierarchy o Ordering and ranking of urban place by population size or function o Can change over years o 2011, Toronto was ranked number one b.c of its diverse economic structure, diversity in culture, pop size etc • Metropolitanization o The largest urban areas are growing faster than smaller urban areas o Population is shifting up the urban hierarchy o The “greater golden horse shoe” one massive urban region • Suburbanization o Shifting population balance between suburban portions of metropolitan areas and the rest of the country o Areas on the edge of the urban core are getting larger * Urban Sprawl- density in a city. Canadian cities are more dense than American cities. Measuring Urban Places (4) • Urban places can be defined using a variety of different criteria. Example: size • Principle method used o Population  Minimum size of settlement of agglomeration  Minimum density  Relying on population alone can be problematic  Measuring the number of people who occupy a location  Canadian cities are more dense/compact than US cities o Economic base  Minimum proportion of the labour force in non-agricultural occupations (service or manufacturing)  Basic (city forming) and non-basic (city serving) goods and services.  Economic Base Theory: activities support city or allow city to grow (forming vs serving). o Administrative  Using some legal or administrative criteria  Comparative research is difficult  Physical and social extent of the city can extend far beyond the administrative responsibility o Functional  Reflect the real extent of the urban influence (how the city actually functions)  Census data expressed in terms of functional definition • Metropolitan statistical area (MSA) in the US • Census Metropolitan Area (CMA) in Canada- 147 of these in Canada o Area consisting of one or more neighboring municipalities situated around a core. A census metropolitan area must have a total population of at least 100,000 of which 50,000 or more live in the core. A census agglomeration must have a core population of at least 10,000. o Peel, York, Durham, Metropolitan Toronto o GTA: everything from Milton in Halton to Uxbridge in Durham o Greater golden horseshoe: takes on regions beyond halton and Durham (economic definition)  The economics region can extend into buffalo and Michigan? Understanding Urban Geography  Understand/interpret the distribution of town and cities  Account for the differences and similarities between them and within them  Two Key Themes o Spatial distribution of towns and cities-system of cities o Internal structure of the city- city as a system  Discipline is eclectic/diverse 3 Disciplines of Urban Geography 
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