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Lecture 4

Lecture Four - The American City as a Jungle.docx

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Robert Lewis

Lecture Four - The Jungle: American Industrial Cities The American City as a Jungle Moving to Chicago thinking as a better life but wasn't worked in the Story line stockyard Today's Question: What are the socio-spatial impact of the rise of the industrial metropolis in the US between 1860 and 1930 Four Themes 1. Industrial metropolis in the US 2. The city of the mechanized factory (Class structure supported by immigration) 3. The city of the downtown office 4. The city of the segregated neighborhoods Industrial Metropolis Large-scale growth since early 19CE with urban reaching majority circa 1915. The greatest growth after Civil War and evens out after 1970. Key elements of capitalist industrialization (all supported by working class) 1. Increasing wealth and investment a. Shifting towards manufacturing and the investment going back to the few elitist 2. Growing working class a. Utilization of science and technology (esp. railroad) 3. State Support a. Development of a circulation system Note: US still was the first corporation in the world Started 2nd Revolution Rockefeller was the richest man in the world (represent capital) Edison elite who created electricity (represent technology) Key Elements of the Second Revolution (1980 - WW2) 1. New Industries (esp. automobile/utilities/oil) 2. Before it was small family firms NOW corporate dominance through merging with other competing companies 3. Labor relations (esp. unions) 4. Science in the workplace (Independent research labs) 5. Time compression In contrast to small factories Industrial Corporation 1. Vertical and horizontal integration a. Controlling all parts of production (wide range of plants) b. Example of steel mill: vertical would be ore mine and horizontal would be merging with competition 2. Multi-unit over a vast territory a. Automonopoly: Control over some companies but not all like a monopoly control 3. Large number of employees and assets 4. Economic concentration a. In 1940: 5% of firms employed 70% of workers, 0.2% forms owned 52% assets (Controlled by small automonopoly) Lecture Four - The Jungle: American Industrial Cities Swift Empire Corporation Started as shipping local cattle for slaughter house like 1780s it was locally based BUT he changed it making it mass production and functional specialization (specialized job) with higher preferences to managerial expertise who aided in distribution network and technological innovation creating the fridge freight car. Meat packaging: example of the new industrial methods (disassembly line) From small plant in the 1870s, Swift built a massive empire that criss- crossed the county by the end of the 19CE. Vertical as they bought out cattle and freight cars but horizontal as they bought out ranches maximizing every part of the animal. New Work Ideology The development of a corporate ideology geared to: (Taylorism: scientific management)  Deskilling labour - making a complex task into less complex tasks o Get paid less, increase productivity, replaceable *Cause capitalism based on max. control  Reducing the independence of workers, reducing corp. dependence over the working class on them  Increasing corporate profits - rise of manager  Control over labor - organizational efficiency and reward system
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