GER150 Lecture 1
Readings - N/A
All 3 thinkers were representatives of the 19th Century (Freud, Marx, Nietzsche)
• went to Bosnia and Italy, got a teaching job when he was in his 20’s, and retired for health reasons.
Became a freelance writer.
• Did not consider himself imperialist
• Exiled in London
Escaped persecution from the Nazis and put on a train to Paris
• friends with high ranking people (princess Bonaparte)
• March 38 Austria was occupied, Freud and his family put under house arrest, allowed to leave
Austria in June. Had throat cancer in his 80s. His sisters ended up in concentration camps. Had to
sign document thing that he was treated well by the Nazis.
• 19th - century of a new fundamental reality
• Hegel made categories of human nature
• Marx - we are bound by social relations
• French Rev and esp. Industrial Rev reshaped experience of modernity, the masses become
• Circulating 19th C questions: what is the nature of man?What are we (DNA, what we do?) Society
trying to understand itself
• Rapid change of both cultural and physical landscape - ex. after french rev people trying to
redeﬁne themselves without the old traditions to lean on, a period of insecurity.
• People feel free in both positive and ne