Lecture 3 Global Urbanization
Tuesday, September 28,
Le Corbusier technology made it possible to provide a sanitary urban environment while
preserving the high-density characteristic of the European cities of the time. His formula, Tower
in the Park, consisted of high-rise-buildings erected at a distance from each other to allow for
ample green space at ground level.
Duany’s, ‘New Urbanism’ model calls for a return to the layout and appearance of the traditional
small town, with houses built close to the sidewalk, a gridiron lay-out and a main commercial
street. The model de-emphasizes the presence of the scar, in large part by relegating garages to
Urban change is emphasized also by post-modernist scholars attempting to identify new urban
trajectories. Dear and Flusty, for example describe how space within the post-modern metropolis
has become hyper-specialized, causing disconnection between some urban sectors.
Jane Jacobs, in the early 1960s, she convincingly demonstrated that traditional inner city
neighbourhoods (at that time such neighbourhoods often were targeted for urban renewal)
encouraged the formation of intense community ties- in sharp contrast to the social desolation of
some projects inspired by the tower in the Park model.
Nothing is set in society: For example, even the best programs in the best universities are of the
The ubiquity of change in human affairs is illustrated by the fashion and design industries, where
transformations are not the outcome of any ameliorative purpose but rather the reflection of
desire for stimulation and for creativity.
Shifting values also have had profound societal impacts in heightened individualism and
acceptance or tolerance towards a wider spectrum of lifestyles.
Evidently, the economy also has played a profound role in the transformation of society.
Demography is another factor of change. Since World War II, the maturing of the baby boom
generation has dominated the demographic scene, forcing institutional and economic adjustment
along the way.
The concept of path dependence has been invoked to account for their stability.
1) A perspective by which certain tendencies are long-lasting and difficult to alter
because they are supported by institutional arrangements and processes
We understand 1) urban form to consist of the built structure of the city, such as buildings and
roads and 2) urban dynamics to comprise behaviours that take place within these city forms.
1) The configuration of urban areas. Urban form can pertain to the distribution and density
of activates within metropolitan regions or to design features of specific places within
2) Human behaviour taking place in cities, also journey patterns within urban areas.
Before, 1950 urban areas were focused predominantly on their central business district, which
encompassed virtually all their high-order services and much of their office employment. Land
values were largely determined by accessibility to the CBD. (Central Business District)
With the generalization of car use new urban areas adopted a dispersed configuration, where, in
sharp contrast with earlier concentrated urban patterns, retailing, service, institutions, and
employment were scattered throughout the numerous sites enjoying high automobile
Revitalization – Renewal or re-growth of an obsolete sector of the economy or area of the city,
such as the reinvigoration of the core and inner city in large Canadian metropolitan areas in the
People in inner cities enjoy public transit, and walking access to wide range of activities, thus
reduced dependence on the car.
The Global Imperative
Flows include products, goods, and services, people, finance and investment, ideas, and policies,
EVEN diseases and illegal drugs.
Flows can help us understand what is happening at the places where they originate and end, and
about place in-between.
Flows are not passive; they exert an influence by virtue of their constant repetition.
At least four characteristics of contemporary flows differentiate them from more conventional
city-metropolitan and regional-hinterland flows.
1) Flows have changed qualitatively in regard to novelty and diversity in what is carried and
in their more complex, network-based organization.
2) Flows have increased quantitatively: more goods are moving through our cities
3) The origins and destinations have changed: international flows have become relatively
4) Responses to flows-reactive and proactive, resistant and embracing- have become more
intense and influential in shaping cities.
Global consumer products and services exert a powerful set of images that re-shape local
Intermediate goods include the raw and bulk materials, parts and components that are
assembled to create consumer products
Producer services also have been restructured on a global basis –accounting firms, advertising
firms and banks.
FLOWS OF PEOPLE
One in five people living in Canada were immigrants or non-permanent residents.
Canada is a stopping place for transnational migrants who may move on to new countries or
return to their point of origin.
Changes in banking and foreign exchange regulations made it easier to move money across
The concept of world city or global city focuses on the role of cities in the organization
intentional economic activity.
Very large cities that interact as much or more – in terms of the flows of information, finances,
goods and people – with other places globally as with cities in their own country and where
growth is propelled by global rather than local factors. Various typologies rate different cities’
position on a global hierarchy
Polarization: a distribution that is skewed towards the two ends of the attribute that is being
measured. Under conditions of the new economy, income is said to be polarized because major
segments in the population fall into either relatively high or low income groups.