1) A perspective by which certain tendencies are long-lasting and difficult to alter
because they are supported by institutional arrangements and processes
We understand 1) urban form to consist of the built structure of the city, such as buildings and
roads and 2) urban dynamics to comprise behaviours that take place within these city forms.
1) The configuration of urban areas. Urban form can pertain to the distribution and density
of activates within metropolitan regions or to design features of specific places within
2) Human behaviour taking place in cities, also journey patterns within urban areas.
Before, 1950 urban areas were focused predominantly on their central business district, which
encompassed virtually all their high-order services and much of their office employment. Land
values were largely determined by accessibility to the CBD. (Central Business District)
With the generalization of car use new urban areas adopted a dispersed configuration, where, in
sharp contrast with earlier concentrated urban patterns, retailing, service, institutions, and
employment were scattered throughout the numerous sites enjoying high automobile
Revitalization – Renewal or re-growth of an obsolete sector of the economy or area of the city,
such as the reinvigoration of the core and inner city in large Canadian metropolitan areas in the
People in inner cities enjoy public transit, and walking access to wide range of activities, thus
reduced dependence on the car.
The Global Imperative
Flows include products, goods, and services, people, finance and investment, ideas, and policies,
EVEN diseases and illegal drugs.
Flows can help us understand what is happening at the places where they originate and end, and
about place in-between.
Flows are not passive; they exert an influence by virtue of their constant repetition.
At least four characteristics of contemporary flows differentiate them from more conventional
city-metropolitan and regional-hinterland flows.