JGI216H Lecture 7.docx

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16 Apr 2012
School
Course
Professor
JGI216H Lecture # 7 New International Division of
Labour
Video Recap “3 Cities Within Toronto” (on book handout she gave us)
David Hulchanski author
High, middle, low income neighbourhoods
Found a long term trend, 2 points in time
It's a map of how they are trending over 35 years
1991 census now
city # 1 - 40% increasing in income and social status
o neighbourhoods who experience 20% of income increase between
1970 - 2005
city # 3 - 20% decreasing in income and social status
o neighbourhoods experience decrease in 20% or more in income
o focus attention on this city..
o because it occupies 40% of neighbourhoods in Toronto
o 66% of this city pop is visible minorities
o after 1965 a lot of immigrants coming from non-traditional
source countries (Africa, Latin America, etc.) 80-90% are visible
minorities in recent years, really still concentrated, esp. in
Downtown
city # 2…. Declining middle income
o increase/decrease in less than 20%, maintained income level
changes in the economy:
o affordable housing
1990‟s no more assisted social housing
fed gov 1993 ended it
o labour market
1950‟s-1970‟s – one good job was enough to support a fam
o cuts in social supports
unemployment insurance used to cover people better in
past
o discrimination
city # 3 - 35% white
city # 1 - 80% white people
disappearing middle class
o 2005 29% of the city is middle income (1/3 of total city)
low income neighbourhoods
o 2005 53% of t.o neighbourhoods are low income now
Toronto low income growing huge, and high income getting higher…
more inequality
o We should be building the middle income society
o Obviously inequality is not good for society
Social strategies
More equal society, means we are all in it together, things
geared for the majority (i.e. house prices)
High income people drive up land values/house prices for
everybody
o New style of socio-spatial polarization in the neoliberal, global era
city
o Neighbourhoods are increasingly segregated by MARKET FORCES
and GOVERNMENT POLICIES
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