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Lecture

HIS102Y1 Lecture Notes - Tokugawa Ieyasu, Toyotomi Hideyori, Sakoku


Department
History
Course Code
HIS102Y1
Professor
Carry Takagaki

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Tokugawa Japan
1600- Battle of Sekigahara- Tokugawa Ieyasu establishes himself as Japans foremost warlord.
Weaponry: 420 cavalry w/ swords, 1200 guns, 850 spears, 200 bows)
1603- Ieyasu assumes the title of shogun. Realizes he must take certain measures to ensure long
and effective government (success, family governed for 250 years in peace). Ieyasu moves the
capital to Edo (Tokyo), emperor remains at Kyoto
1605- Ieyasu retires, son Hidetada becomes shogun (puppet). Power transferred so upon Ieyasu’s
death there would be no question of succession
1615- Ieyasu renews attack on Osaka catle, kills Hideyori and his mother (Hideyoshi family) and
removes the last of his opposition.
- Ieyasu outlines four sons from which the shogun may be chosen (ensure succession)
- Controlling Daimyo
- Daimyo forced to notify shogun before repairing castles. New castles were not permitted
- Warlords needed the permission of the shogun before marrying (control alliances)
- Dress code for warriors (show shoguns superiority)
- 3 categories of warlords (most to least trusted); Shimpan Daimyo- relatives of Tokugawa,
Fudai daimyo- warlords who fought with Ieyasu, Tozama Daimyo- warlords subordinated to
Tokugawa during his rule *Tokugawa family owns ¼ of Japan)
- Alternate Attendance- Sankin Kotai- daimyo spend every other year in Edo, wives and
children remain there. Keeps daimyo poor (20% income on travel costs, 28% used on Edo
residence)
- System of Governance- bakufu and daimyo had domains. Only if peasants revolted against a
daimyo the shogun would confiscate the land. Rule was moderate to prevent this. Daimyo
paid no taxes but held small expectations from shogun (infrastructure repair, etc).
Shogunate served as the central government and daimyo were autonomous locally but often
copied shoguns laws.
- Disparity in domain size; smallest 10000 koku (rice to feed a man for one year), largest
1000000 koku. Emperor kept relatively poor (forced to rely on shogun)
- Isolation Policy- sakoku- closes Japan’s borders (killed if you left or came). Ships could not
leave Japan. Trade was forbidden to stop income to the warlords (Dutch Protestants
allowed one limited trade mission per year)
- Christianity suppressed and later forbidden (strictly enforced) due to conflict with Pope
(divided loyalties). Priests ordered to leave in 1614.
- Shimbara Rebellion- 1637- famine leads to peasant revolts, many are Christians (former
mass conversions for trade)
- All Japanese must register at the Buddhist temple (birth, death, marriage). Once a year
people were required to go to temple and step on a Christian image
- Restrictions on Guns- all gunmakers in Japan forced to a city near Kyoto. If a person needed
a gun they must apply to the emperor (no applications passed through). Eventually
gunmakers die out. Trained swordsmen left in the hands of the shogun
- 4 Divisions of Tokugawa Society- 1) Samurai (6/7%) 2) Farmers 3) Artisans 4) Merchants
5) outcasts. No social mobility
- Confucian system
- Warriors begin to take on the role of scholars (peace)
- Yamaga Soho- 1622-1685- bushido”way of the warrior”- samurai really have no place in
society as peace prevails. Samurai is expected to upkeep the law, serve as an example for
other classes, obey overlord to the death
- Ako Affair (1701-03)- court sends envoys with newyears message to the shogun (certain
daimyo oversees the huge ceremony). Asano Naganori serves as representative ands asks
Kira Yoshinaka for advice on how to conduct the ceremony. Kira insults Asano (certain
error in the ceremony) and Asano draws his sword in the shoguns palace (punishable by
death). Asano commits suicide. Asano’s land confiscated by the shogun and vassals become
masterless ronin
- Around 200 samurai prepare 2 years for vengeance. 47 remain and kill Kira, then surrender
to shogun
- DILEMMA- violating public law and using violence versus faithfully living up to duty as
samurai (loyalty to lord)
- Ronin allowed to commit ritual suicide (uphold law, keep honour)
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