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Lecture 4

HIS103Y1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Bonfire, French Revolutionary Wars, Janissaries


Department
History
Course Code
HIS103Y1
Professor
Alison Smith
Lecture
4

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LECTURE 7
Why did e start ith 3 years’ ar?
Cardinal Richelieu made a crucial decision- he threw catholic Frances power against other
states. he did this for raison de-etat. Frances decision to enter war was motivated my state
interest. The state system begins in Europe but expands globally.
The age of exploration when Europe was exploring the world for trade. Its trade more than
strategy that liks Europe to other parts of the orld. It’s aout gettig trade resoures fro
other parts of the orld to support uildig states i Europe. (early ’s). in 18th century
there are 17 more recognized wars. These wars are crucial for understanding the development
of state and state system. Wars built the modern state. Wars create the necessity of rulers to
have a monopoly on force. (monopoly on armed forces). But to do this you need money. So the
state must have some system for gathering taxes to pay for this armed force. Rulers use armed
force to protect their power at home. Armed force can be used against citizens in a country as
well. Rulers use armed force to ensure that taxes are paid- compelling citizens to pay taxes.
Through the wat of Spanish succession to French revolutionary war at the end of 18th Century,
states operate in balance of power system. But some states enter and some go. Sweden and
united provinces no longer have balance of power. Poland will cease to exist as a state. There
are 5 states that are constants in the century- France, England, Austria, Prussia, Russia.
War ade Frae. Louis otiued to gro his ary ad e’e see ho French war made
other states. English took a new state etc. Other states also created standing armies to match
the French. Britain emerged as a huge power that developed into a naval power. These five
states are different but share similarities- the standing army and a modernized bureaucracies
and state funding for army. Army and bureaucracy are intertwined. Shift in their alliances can
change a change in the balance of power. All the other states will feel threatened if any of these
became more powerful
Why these 5 powers and why did this have to work like this?
Rise of Austria poer ad delie of ottoa’s.
See piture o 3 years’ ar.
Ottoman was a long standing empire. It had land in Europe- 100 years before course begins.,
huge, huge territory, more than any European states in that time.
In 1529, ottoman had attacked Vienna and then repulsed. It had threatened Europe before and
it will again.
The rulers of ottoman were Muslim but not all people were nor were they require to.
Ottoman empire had grown before bureaucratization. It relied on plunder or expansion to get
resources. They have just keep expanding to get resources, the more territory, the more land
you have to defend. it suffered from biting off more than it could chew. Yet it continued and
grew. A part of it was because of excellent military.
Their infantry system was called janissary system- the ottomans took Christians from Balkans,
conscripted them, converted them to Muslims and educated them into completely efficient
military. But the janissary system soon wore off. The janissaries themselves became a power
bloc within the ottoman empire themselves. They did not like to change, they liked the power.
Overall the ottoman empire was conservative or resistant to change. Religion did effect the
ottomans. There was an assumption that fortune in war was decided by Allah, changing this
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