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Konstantine Zakzanis

Every major peace treaty must be signed in major international peace conference Peace of Westphalia (birth of modern intl rel) was the first major peace treaty that concluded a conflict Territorial settlement they agreed on in 1648 lasted for no less than 150 years so clearly tremendous achievements 1761 Europe can thank the treaty of Westphalia that achieves through diplomacy through negotiation therefore will maintain the stability & European state system (jaja crousseau?) 30 years war more devastation than ww2 (approx 5 million died in germany 1/3 of the European population) 30 years brought on by: -schism/breakdown of the church into to warring factions protestants, and Christians -military/technological revolution (gunpowder/muskets) brought unprecedented carnage 1517 martin luther nailing the 95 theses (questioned morality/means of income of church)indulgences etc, leo 4 threatened him with excommunication, etc german princes wanted political freedom so they supported martin luther created a holy roman empire catholic priests wanted to abolish Protestantism because martin luthers 95 theses affected their income catholics resisted Protestantism for a while for a long time Swedish king gustavus, asked all protestants to join in the war & fight (no chance for neutrality you are either with us or against us) French general - im French first, and then catholic he would pursue the benefits of france, and then religion September 21, 2011 The French developed a stabilized bureaucracy due to taxations, etc, and due to their population (14-20million) they were the richest state The French created the largest army 100,000 during this time was unheard of, rising to 4-500,000 during war times France had a young, and ambitious prince (1661 Louis XIV) I AM the state he created his own wills, desires, objectives for that of France what France wanted, is always what Louis wanted Glory, etc was common for princes of that time, but he wanted extreme glory this pursuit of glory was an attempt to make Europe see hoe great France was He wanted to be the apex of French society so France should be the apex of European society; wanting recognition from other countries that France was the most Christian/important state So, Versailles was built (20 years) to show off this importance, but it didnt have washrooms not a great place for foreign diplomats War the manly way to gain glory Major characteristic of Louis foreign policy some say he pursued war at all costs, some say aggression is part and parcel of such a strong state, some say he wanted to become the Holy Roman Emperor himself, some say all that he wanted was security all he wanted was France to remain a viable member of the European society As he aged, Louis foreign policy changed; evolved France emerged as a victorious state gaining the most from the treaty of Westphalia, as well as gaining alliances (Dutch, English) not only was France secure, but it also had a voice in German issues BUT the French fought with the Spaniards for 11 years after the Treaty of W which ended with another treaty (of Pyrenees) (through which Louis gained land, and a new bride who was asked to renounce her claims to Spanish throne however, the Spanish didnt pay the ridiculous dowry, they just agreed because they wanted to come to peace France knew this, but they wanted to maintain diplomatic friendships/land to increase their own territories) France was always a land power they never really cared about naval power because they were not an island nation (like England) Spanish border was not a threat to Louis, as the 2 passes large armies could get through were under French control German border against Rhine River, even that is a difficult border Area of concern: Border with the Spanish Netherlands Almost every river flowed into France The countries were below sea level (protective barrier) The proximity of Paris/Versailles to the border French lawyers looked for a legal loophole in the dowry that would allow them to claim the area of the Spanish Netherlands making France even more stable/secure; increasing Louis glory Alliances with the Dutch, Swedish, British (French diplomacy) 24 of May1665 70,000 of a French army took over the Spanish Netherlands (better equipped, trained, fed) (took about 5 months to get the up to about Brussels) Louis unwillingness to stop the invasion alarmed his alliances mainly the Dutch (Dutch & English were at war with each other over the states, and colonies; both were French allies) the English and the Dutch signed a peace agreement because they didnt want the French to take over Europe while they were too busy fighting each other The 3 (with Sweden) signed a secret agreement in January 1668 The triple alliance, and they offered to mediate between France and Spain, in order to refrain from war The Secret alliance had a secret clause; if France refused to settle the issue diplomatically, they would join Spain militarily, and force France to stop Louis found out about this hidden clause, so he sat down with them, and they mediated ending the 1 year war of devolution France agreed in Treaty of Appalachian/a la chapelle (?) to give up some of the territories they had acquired during the war, but Carlos (king of Spain) gave up the Dutch border because he wanted the French and Dutch to continue with their animosity if he hadnt, France and Netherlands would most likely have made up Spain did this because they figured they would gain more from this, than keeping the area for themselves Louis (sun-king) was outraged by his allies especially that of the Dutch (stabbing France in the back) but the true embarrassment came when the Dutch made a coin of someone stopping the sun? (Louis the sun god) So, Louis went out to seek revenge on the Dutch republic, since he had lost so much money and stuff trying to help the Dutch gain independence Dutch did better economically the economic powerhouse of not only Europe, but perhaps the world, regardless of their minimal population What allowed this was their colonies, 9,000 ships to carry the worlds goods, natural resources of their lands, and their colonies, and selling to people in Europe, Dutch stock exchange they set the price that was accepted all over the world Bank of Amsterdam was the strongest, wealthiest bank in that time The French were undermined by the Dutch in various aspects (economically, etc) 1664: tariffs introduced to undermine Dutch economy, but the Dutch retaliated limiting French imports, and lowering their prices; French could not compete It was decided that the only way to deal with the Dutch, was to make the Dutch a part of France avenging Louis embarrassment, and absorbing their economic superiority Tasks before this could commence: Triple Alliance had to be destroyed (that forced Louis to settle his Spanish feud) Isolate the Dutch ensure that no one would/could come to the aid of the Dutch Improve the French military so that the Dutch had a force to be reckoned with They excelled Triple Alliance: Immediately France approached Britain Louis offered 225,000 pounds a year to king Charles, so he could create an absolutist state, and Charles wanted to become a Catholic which gained him another 150,000 pounds (Treaty of Dover, 1966) France approached Sweden within a year bought every Swedish (?) Swedish agreed to support France in any military action Thus, the Triple Alliance fell apart, but the French went a few steps further Bavaria, etc in the Holy Roman Empire signed treaties of neutrality saying the emperor would not be allowed to cross over their territories to aid the Dutch Louis approached the Holy Roman Emperor offered support to Austrians, and assured they would not be attacked by France (treaties of friendship/neutrality) within 2 years Denmark was isolated Militarily: French armies settled in Bahrain (?) and created a passageway to the Dutch borders 1671: First French troops moved across German territory beside Denmark January: Denmark decided to beef up their armies Britain also attacked Denmark April 6, 1672 120,000 French soldiers crossed over from the West & East, rendering the Dutch defenseless If Louis had taken Amsterdam the war wouldve been over in that summer, but he refused glory After the summer, Dutch were supported worldwide, and as a last-ditch attempt, the Dutch flooded a good amount of Denmark, so Amsterdam became an island so the only way to take over Amsterdam was by naval force, but the Dutch navy was better than the British & French combined
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