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HIS 109 Semester 2 Lecture Notes Jan 7, 2013.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Bartlett

HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII I Jan 7, 2013 The French Revolution Review -constitutional monarchy -Jacobins -Wars of French Revolution (1792-1802) -Radical Republic -Reign of Terror -Maximilian Robespierre -Thermidorian Reaction -Directory (11/ 1795-11/1799) -Napoleon’s Coup of 18 Brumer (Month in the French Revolutionary Calendar; 1792 = year 1) NAPOLEON -took power in the summer of 1799 -result of European powers wanting to suppress the upheaval of the revolution -Russia and Britain were about to invade France to restore the monarchical system in Europe -French needed a strong, central power to preserve the revolution and protect France -needed a popular figure for the French to support -this was Napoleon; glorious general -government officials figured Napoleon would be the popular figurehead while they governed the new revolutionary France, Napoleon saw it another way -Napoleon was made head consulate (of 3) -he made himself console for life and later Emperor (1804) -Napoleon saw himself as a child of the revolution -nonetheless, he believed imperialism was the only way to preserve the new France -“the government is entrusted into the hands of the emperor” -still, Napoleon needed legitimacy to rule the way he wanted to rule -Concordat, Peace ofAmiens, Civil code were acts he used to restore peace in revolu- tionary, anarchic France -the peace he created using these made his power legitimate -he made peace with Austria in 1801, peace with Britain in 1802 (short lived) -these peace treatise made him even more popular in war weary France Concordat of 1801 -agreement between Napoleon and the Catholic Church -wanted to heal the rift between the revolution and the Church, signed on Easter -revolution had sold off a lot of Church lands -Napoleon gave the Catholic Church official recognition in France not the official religion of France, but at least recognized its existence and predominance in France -state would pay all French Bishops and most priests -Church run, state financed -Clergy would no longer have to pledge allegiance to the state, instead only to obey the laws -allowed religious citizens to reconnect with the revolution HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII II -school system was centralized under the government, no longer the church -standardized French language -efficient Civil Code (1804) -a.k.a Code Napoleon -united all the messy French laws into one central body of law -entrenched the values of the revolution -abolished privilege, property rights; made all subject to the law -also reversed other revolutionary laws -illegitimate children had full rights to inheritance under revolutionary law, civil code revoked this -divorce was fairly liberal in revolutionary law, civil code returned to patriarchal values Napoleonic Military Conquest -annexed French rule all over Europe and oversees -French empire made of France, satellite states (family owned states like Spain), and independent allies of France -set up the continental system -blockade of Europe from Britain to choke British trade Napoleon and the German States -Germany was not one state, divided into 300 statelets that loosely spoke German -Holy Roman Empire was usually ruled by the emperor of theAustrian Empire (Hapsburg) -1803, Napoleon reorganizes the German states -dictates the former Austrian Emperor to make his states more systematic, no more ecclesiastical (church run) states -a.k.a mediatisation -Germany went from 300 to 30 states Confederation of the Rhine 1806 -created by Napoleon -started as a union of 15 German states -expanded to almost all German states except Prussia andAustria -Napoleon was the ‘protector’ HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII III -end of Holy Roman Empire -former emperor dissolved the Holy ROman EMpire and made himself Emperor of Austria -German self consciousness, begin to unite German culture/ nation Jan 9, 2013 Napoleon Lecture Review -Holy Roman Empire/ Hapsburg Empire (post 1804,Austria) -Emperor ruled both HRE and Hapsburg Empire -Francis II dissolved the HRE; withholds imperial status -renames empireAustria; renames himself Emperor Francis I ofAustria -During Napoleons reign, HRE/ HE divided intoAustria, Confederation of the Rhine, Prussia etc. -Napoleon named protector of the Con. of the Rhine German National Consciousness -nationalism becomes the modern organizing method after Napoleon’s France -the revolutionary nation (people) was sovereign over monarchy -some states liked this liberation by France, some didn’t -Spain, Germany, Italy resisted French revolutionary customs -felt separate nations deserved -concept of the nation should determine sovereignty, not ‘universal’(French) revolu- tionary ideals -German culture begins to become united; music, art, history, traditions at this point ex. Brothers Grimm -philosophers began to refer to the German states as ‘the conquered German people’ -Napoleon fell because of flawed policies, resistance, and overextension -Duke of Wellington (1759-1852) -Invasion of Russia (1812) -Russia depended on wheat trade with Britain -Napoleon’s continental blockade limited this -Napoleon wanted to restore Polish King to the throne (Poland was ruled by Russia) -defeat at Leipzig (1813) -coalition European powers defeat Napoleon from all sides -Napoleon replaced by Louis XVIII (1814-1824 except for the hundred days) THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA: 1814-1815 -how do we restore Europe after Napoleon? -how do we eliminate revolutionary ideals? HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII IV -New Europe: Kingdom of France (Louis XVIII), Prussia expanded,Austrian Empire expanded to parts of Italy -post-Napoleonic victors: Britain, Prussia, Russia,Austria -we want to stamp out the French revolution but we want the new France to support its new monarchy and be successful so France was highly supported at the congress of Vienna -4 victors listed above decided to secretly make major decisions together away form the other delegates -Czar Alexander I (r. 1801-1825) -showed up to the Congress in person -believed Russia deserved the dominant role in shaping the peace because of its role in Napoleon’s defeat -Prince KarlAugust von Hardenberg of Prussia was deaf, sent an emissary to the congress -Prince Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859) -Austrian Foreign Minister -later Austrian Chancellor -believed the int’l state system could be in balance, some things would throw off that balance (French revolution, Napoleon etc.) -France became more powerful than the other states -new goal was to restore the balance Goals of the Congress of Vienna Legitimacy -the nation/ people are not sovereign, hereditary monarchs are -set up a system that would internationally suppress revolutions by restoring monarchies -feared liberalism and nationalism -restore aristocratic rule -stability -no power would be able to overthrow the BOP -Balance of Power -congress system: dynastic legitimacy and balance of power -restoration of Louis XVIII -set up territorial defensive barriers are France and Russia -ex. Prussian territory was expanded but separated to buffer French aggression or Rus- sian aggression -Austria didn’t want Prussia to be too powerful because they would challenge Austri- an dominance over the German states -Germanic Confederation -made up of parts of Prussia and the Germanic states -led by a parliament Concert of Europe -system of annual meetings among the great powers -would prevent revolutions HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII V -first collective security agreement -restoration Europe -old dynasties put back in power -still, new rulers could no longer dictate in an absolutist manner -ex. Czar of Russia had to sign a liberalist constitution in Poland to sustain control -relative European peace 1815-1848 -modern conservatism Jan 14, 2013 INDUSTRIALIZATION I -Industrial Revolution (1760’s-1850) -wasn’t a revolution to contemporaries in the same way as the French Revolution -slow, people wouldn’t have noticed the change -didn’t effect of Europe uniformly -thus, better referred to simply as industrialization -changes in how things were made, transported, lifestyles, where/ how people lived/ worked What is growth? -GDP, value of goods and services produced by a nation -growth in the amount of manufactured goods produced What is structural change? -fewer people employed in agriculture -what’s being traded/ exported? Patterns of trade -cotton textiles; raw materials coming in, manufactured goods going out Malthusian Trap -Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) analyzed the relationship b/w population/ wages/ production -the pattern of human production since the beginning of human history -things aren’t always getting better and aren’t going to keep getting better - + prosperity = + population -high populations drain a preset amount of resources -population grows, resources don’t -same with the price of labour, more people, more workers, amount of work that needs to be done does not change -thus, wages can drop, meanwhile, workers still need to feed their families based on the amount of unchanging resources -thus, wages drop, prices rise, eventual collapse/ war/ famine etc. -‘real wages’refers to purchasing power of your income as opposed to the amount of money in your income HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII VI -Malthus proposed birth controls -he did not anticipate how technology would alter this natural pattern -industrialization allowed a break in the Malthusian trap -populations rose, but what you could do with your income also rose Technological Change -coal is the key -preciously, animal power, human power, wood -people were dependent on the fertility of the Earth’s surface alone -18th c. Britain was running out of forests -coal was plentiful -people figured this source would last forever -transportation technology also improved -brought Europe closer to the new world -Europe’s geographic region made it easier for European’s to access exotic sources of raw materials -furthermore, if population outgrows Europe, send them to the new world -new market for manufactured goods and spreads population more evenly -only after the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo did industrialization really begin to spread across Europe (1820- ) -opened continental trade Great Divergence -major gap developed between Europe and the rest of the world’s industrialization -ex. India and China’s manufacturing industries proportionally decreased where Europe took over -pre-1500,Asia was far ahead of Europe technologically -Europe wanted Asian products,Asia only wanted Europe’s gold and silver -industrialization allowed Europe to produce new goods in high demand globally -commerce explains why Britain industrialized first -more trade, more resources etc. -Britain was Europe’s largest colonial power, biggest market France was wealthiest in the west, Holland had the most efficient agriculture, but Britain sur- passed them, why? -location -water transport is cheaper/ more efficient than continental -lots of rivers/ coastlines in England -tons of raw materials from it colonies, manufacture them in Britain -convenient location with lots of coal/ iron deposits -1700’s agricultural revolution; new crops, new techniques etc. -cash crops, durable/ cheap crops (potato) from the new world -feed more animals, beasts of burden, transportation etc. -seed drill, manure etc. -landlords had large scale farms to feed people in cities/ mines -these landlords could afford to invest in new technologies in the cities etc. HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII VII -formerly, farmers used to farm long plots of land for themselves and then there’d be a common land for all -enclosure system authorized by parliament (1750) -allowed landlords to claim these common lands and more efficiently farm them -decreased rural communities, increased cheap industrial labour in cities and increased markets Jan 16, 2013 Britain’s Advantages -access to internal and overseas expanding markets -water transport (ocean/ rivers) -raw materials -agricultural revolution -differences in labour force -available capital-national banking system Inventions -John Kay, 1733: flying Shuttle -double the speed in which cotton could be woven -James Hargreaves, 1760’s: spinning jenny -water frame, power loom, cotton gin (research more) -British cloth production soared as a result of all the inventions -steam engine -cotton and iron industries needed new ways to be powered -did not rely on water power to fuel factories -before this, most manufacturing was done in ‘cottage industries’ -home businesses -factory system overtook production in homes, workshops, cottage industries -increases the amount of work that can be done by unskilled workers -costs less to produce things, workers no longer have to be masters of their trade -labour becomes cheaper, easily replaceable, unskilled -leads to social changes INDUSTRIALIZATION II -transformations of industrialization were not only economic -rural to urban lifestyles, denser populations -for most of human history, population could only grow to the point that agriculture could support it -population growth despite people moving overseas -higher birth rates -even if families still owned a farm, not all the children could inherit and live off their own part, had to move into cities -pre-1800’s 1/5 children died before their 1st birthday HIS 109 Semester 2 Modern Europe: French Revolution to WWII VIII -more surviving children meant their was a huge unskilled workforce growing up -lower death rates -increased workforce -famers that couldn’t compete with the new large-scale, monoculture farms moved
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