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Lecture

Napoleon.docx

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Department
History
Course
HIS109Y1
Professor
Anthony Cantor
Semester
Winter

Description
-Brophy quote: pg. 272 (theme of second half of course) transformations were gradual, some of the old traditions continued -Modern Europe emerged out of 2 transformations: French Revolution & Industrialisation how did they lead to: -new political structures, ideologies, social relations & economic conditions emerged out of the tensions & challenges of those transformations? The French Revolution (review) -Constitutional Monarchy -Jacobins -Wars of the Fr. Rev. (1792-1802) -Radical Republic -The Reign of Terror (9/1793-7/1794) -Maximilien Robespierre (1758-1794) -Thermidorean Reaction -Directory (11/1795-11/1799) Napoleon: Lecture Outline 1. Reconciliation of old & new regimes 2. Administrative reforms 3. Code Napoleon 4. Military conquest 5. Reorganization of Germany 6. Stimulation of national feeling in Europe -Napoleon took power in 1799 & his rise to power was a symptom of the upheaval of the rev.: climate of fear & paranoia b/c the powers of Europe saw it as imperative to squash the rev. -summer 1799, looked like Russia & Britain were about to invade France & internal war in France, led people to believe the regime needed to be strengthened or else it could be overthrown, needed to find a way to increase central rule, a popular figure: Napoleon was a popular general, someone who could centralize power & protect rev. against foreign & domestic enemies -after Napoleon took power, he emerged as the strongest power in the Fr. gov’t (coup within a coup) -Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) -coup of 18 Brumaire (Nov. 9, 1799) –The Concordat of 1801 –Peace of Amiens (1802) – Civil Code of 1803 (Napoleonic Code) –French Empire (1804) -1802: had himself made permanently First Consul -1804: had himself declared hereditary emperor -always walking the line between being a child of the rev. & asking in ways that seemed to contradict ideas of the rev. (reconciliation of old & ne regimes) -in order to rule effectively, he realized he needed some degree of legitimacy, which he attained through certain achievements in his early years in power: he developed & used legacy he used in Fr. Rev. to present solutions to some disruptions that had occurred in France (Concordat, Amiens) to restore peace gave him ability to centralize power in himself & bring about many reforms -1800: Napoleon defeated the Austrians, made peace settlement in 1801 & signed Peace of Amiens w/ British in 1802 brought him credibility, popularity to maintain support as Emperor -1801-1804 was relatively peaceful compared to before Fr. Rev. -1801: Concordat was an agreement w/ the Catholic Church, it healed the rift between the state & the Catholic Church from the rev., 1) pope accepted the sale of Church lands, in return, 2) Napoleon gave official recognition to the Catholic faith in
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