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New Imperialism.docx

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Anthony Cantor

New Imperialism -“Scramble for Afirca”: wave in 1880s of European rivals I. Motivations for Imperialism II. Tools of Conquest III. Scramble for Africa IV. Imperialism in Asia I. Motivations for Imperialism -Economic causes -people thought money could be made from Imperial adventures -companies were ruling large territories w/ their own military power, Ex. British East India Company -needed expanding sources of natural resources & markets & investment opportunities for the new capital produced in late 1800s -Africa & Asia were most appealing -there was a large consensus that this was a good thing to do w/ growing industrialization “The highest stage of capitalism” -by Lenin in reference to Imperialism -Marx had predicted the middle-class would continue to create a global market, thought that capitalism was about competition & over-production (needing new markets) -Marx said that history had to go through certain stages; believed Imperialism would speed up these developing processes in developing countries -Lenin expanded Marx’s view of what Imperialism had to do w/ economic forces & Capitalism, saying Imperialism is a technique that allowed countries to put off revolutions at home, but European nations could delay inevitable workers’ revolutions by making use of poorer countries -Marx & Lenin thought colonialism & imperialism came from the same ideas as Capitalism -states would build up military to make sure their colonies would remain in their possession -“Social Darwinism” & Nationalism -if you didn’t compete for resources, other people would & you would decline, becoming the weaker, unfit to survive -1880s: great powers competing for colonies driven by economic logic & aggressive national competition -political motivations, esp. France: Fr. gov’t saw Imperialism as a good way to build up national morale after their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War -Bismarck liked the idea of the Fr. focusing on an empire in Africa b/c it might distract them from wanting to get revenge & re-claim the territories they lost ”New Imperialism” b/c it is distinguished from the colonialism of the 1500s, b/c of its extent & legacy -extent of European domination of the world: 1800: Europeans controlled 35% of the world’s land surface, 1878: 67% 1914: 84% -“White Man’s Burden” & “mission civilisatrice” -Europeans believed they had a duty to spread civilization or Christianity to “savages” to explain it to those who might’ve doubted Imperialism -to teach the virtues of Western cultures, ex. cleanliness II. Tools of Conquest -Transportation -New Imperialism happened majorly b/c of new transportation, like new steamships & esp. railways -Industrial technology enabled this new colonization -also communication technology, ex. telegrams -Weapons -ability of Europeans to use force increased a lot -Winston Churchill observed a Sudan battle in the late 1800s & described effects of machine gun on the native population -Joseph Conrad was against the “conquest of the Earth” -Medicine
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