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Lecture 15

Lecture 15 - The Thirty Years War.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Bartlett

HIS109Y1- Lecture Fifteen The Thirty Years War October 31/2012 Hussites A. von Wallenstein (1583 to 1634) Gustavus Adolphus (1632) Westphalia (1648) Richelieu - 30 years was broke out in 1618 in Bohemia - the spark was both religious and political: in 1609, the emperor promised religious freedom to Hussites of Bohemia (based upon Protestantism; Hussites before Luther) - Emperor’s cousin Ferdinand was devoutly Catholic and refused Protestantism so Bohemians rebelled - Kings of Bohemia were elected, so Bohemian nobles tried to depose Ferdinand. They then elected Frederick - the Habsburgs then couldn’t accept this so Ferdinand invaded Bohemia. Negotiations were attempted but the Bohemians threw Habsburg ambassadors out the window. They survived but now informed the Habsburgs that the only option was war - Dutch confederacy/Transylvania all supported Bohemia with troops and money - Habsburgs were receiving lots of money from Spain via the New World 1620: white mountain battle where Protestants were greatly defeated and Habsburgs were Kings of Bohemia once more - Ferdinand still wasn’t happy so he brought in Jesuits to convert/destroy Protestantism - in German speaking lands, Habsburgs ruled unchallenged - Dutch Kings formed a Protestant alliance to try to override Habsburgs but were defeated by a mercenary called A. von Wallenstein. He put together his own private army of professional soldiers. They were loyal only to him not to the emperor - the army was to be paid by what they could take from the conquered land. This put all of Europe in danger since it was placed in total war - Ferdinand then was in charge of all Protestant power. he declared the Edict of Restitution which meant all Protestant property had to be given back to the Catholics and the Habsburg empire - the princes of Germany wanted Wallenstein’s army disbanded so they refused to elect Ferdinand’s son as emperor unless he disbanded them - European states became afraid of the new power of the HRE; France in particular - Chief Minister of France Cardinal Richelieu recommended a proxy war to keep the emperor occupied by giving subsidies to Sweden to fight the HRE - Swedish Adolphus then formed the front for the Protestant cause to take on the empire - Ferdinand saw the danger of Adolphus so he recommissioned Wallenstein and his army - 1632: battle between Wallenst
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