The Wars Of Religion
The reliance on war as an instrument to solve international and national problems was all through
frequent in European society. An event as intense as the reformation thus caused a incredibly violent
war, more brutal effects of the reformation.
How did the roman church respond? Counter-attack and counter-reformation.
Vocabulary of religion is the only acceptable vocabulary of change
Whole new definition of statecraft, creation of new states, ex. Dutch confederacy, division of old states.
One of the lessons taught by those creators of religion, those who redefine the state in new religious
terms: 16 century power of the state can and should be used to control the citzens in every aspect of
their lives. They had to believe everything crimes against god, state and ruler. Ruler could determine
exactly what those officially sanctioned rules should be; not just church but nobles/leaders.
Nothing, not the law, not traditional morality nor pity should stand in the way of the state; the state was
the person who controlled everything. New definitions needed when the double juristiciton of church
and state broke down. Only way to figure it out was war kings and princes always acted like that, now
different because it became an element of daily policy; raison d’etat, there is no morality, action that
can’t be justified because it is beneficial and necessary for the well being of the state itself
Example: assassination of rules (castro) for raison d’etat.
These are ideas that are now being heavily injected into the European experience. This concept was
most successfully at work in the Roman Church: had lost whole nations, revenue, used concept of
tighter control, necessary to assure that Catholicism would survive, Protestantism had to be stopped
and turned back at any price
Catholic church reorganized itself in
Effectively combat Protestantism. Abuses in the Church had to be corrected so that the faithful would
stay in the church, calling of a general chuch council that would define and represent the whole catholic
church in Trent. Factional disputes, necessary to continue debate for almost 20 years (1545-63).
Powerful reaffirmation by those specific elements deemed by Protestants as inappropriate.
Sacremenatal 7was re-established. Teachings of the Roman Church was essential for reaching salvation.
Simplicity of religion endorsed by the Protestants completely rejected. Central authority of the Pope was
reaffirmed: an army had to have one general, one leader. Catholicism was reorganized and reaffirmed as
a strict hierarchy in which the Pope is a omnipotent head.
Roman Catholic Inquisition: Different because it was centralized; many of the new sects constcribled to
a sort of thought control, they could test and punish them if they were inapporpriat catholics engage
in the same thing; belief had to be reinforced and enforced. “thinking the wrong thought” Index of forbidden books: Roman Catholics were told what they oculd and couldn’t read, could and
couldn’t know. Penalties for knowing were severe and extreme. Protestant religions have spread so
quickly and established so fast because of the printing press, power of the printing press had to be
addressed and had to be controlled. All of those who protested the church or made fun of it were put on
it. The Index was rigorous and a defined orthodox belief. People were forced to conform. The index
lasted until 1966, up until then it functioned the same way it had 400 years before.
Couter-Catholic reformation, reenergization I. Loyola (1491-1556)zealous soldiers who were gonna
stand up against the protestants. He developed a military mentality and that there was a divine thing at
work here, Jesuits, extention of Europe into the new world. Wounded, during recuperation he realized
that he was fighting for the wrong leader, right cause, not just infidels in Spain but infidels everywhere.
Vision 8 days: shape of a book he was destined to write and the religion he was bound to write. Book
military, discipline, you are a soldier for Christ, you submit completely, you will is subservient to the will
of those around you. He became a fixture, the focus of interest in Jerusalem, studied theology, walked
to rome with his disciple, asked Pope to ordain them as priests, they had a zeal he could take advantage
of, they were granted the right to found a new religious order, society of Jesus. Organized around three
concepts: Preaching, teaching and missionary activity. Missionary was not just for other culture but in
Europe for those who had submitted to Protestantism. Using education to teach Catholicism, adapting
humaninst curriculum for the benefit of Catholisim. Elite school system would train leaders of the