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[7] The Wars of Religion & English Civil War.doc

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Kenneth Bartlett

October 25, 2010 The Wars of Religion - Fallout of the Reformation - Roman Church - how did it respond to Luther and Calvin? - Power of state can and should be used to control citizens: actions, beliefs - Machiavelli: nothing should stand between the needs of the state - Immoral actions of governments - always happened - Individual rights, rights of citizens - can be superseded by rulers of state - Raisons d’etat = reasons of state - Roman Church - lost much revenue b/c of Luther - Centralized organization = engaged by church - To enable complete adherence by those loyal = reorganized itself as centralized power to undo Protestant successes - Paul III - reorganize Roman Church - Create new idea of church approved by a council that had authority to redefine the faith, dis- cussed issues of Church - done in Council of Trent (1545-1563) - Sacramental idea - redefined - Traditions & teachings = had a role to play (couldn’t use scripture alone) - Free will endorsed; predestination = rejected - Artists were called to beautify the churches => on way to heaven - Role of Pope = redefined and recognized - Church = theocratic monarchy - 1542- Roman Inquisition: make sure people believe the right stuff and those who don’t believe it - shut up - Centralized: who was to be rejected, who was accepted (sometimes burn heretics) - Result of Reformation: books had to be approved - Index of Forbidden Books - Roman Catholics were told what to believe, what they could or could not know - Penalties of possession of any book on the list - Reformation spread so quickly because of power of print (ideas spread and were accepted) - Protestant example (in Reformation) - showed how dangerous fast spread of (dangerous)infor- mation was - Anything that challenged or criticized the Church - on the list - Faithful were forced to conform; controlled in every aspect - Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556): nobleman raised in feudal Spain in age of warfare and cru- sades • Feudal knight • Leg almost blown off --> could never fight again • Read he should fight enemies of Christ (he fought the wrong battles) • Went to university, picked up followers • 8-day vision: saw the book he was to right (book of discipline: train faithful and control the will) and new religious order he would found (Society of Jesus/Jesuits) • 1537: small band of his followers reached Rome; Pope Paul III accepted them and or- dained them all priests • Jesuits controlled elite education in Europe = power, authority • Goal: combat Protestant revolution • 3 principles: teaching, preaching, missionary activity • Saved souls in Protestant strongholds • Make sure discovery of new world - newly contacted people would be converted to RO- MAN CATHOLICISM • Education - Erasmus etc. put together education regimen based on rhetoric • If they educated the best people - they could recover what was lost and have complete Catholic control • Lived in the world, dressed in normal clothes --> looked normal • Educated the elite, but not only affected them; affected government, art, etc. - Also caused Wars of Religion - State’s authority to enforce 1 religion on the people = seen as a raison d’etat, accepted - Idea of having 1 religion in 1 state = seen as necessary to have shared values and principles in state, cause unity - Phillip II (1556-1598) of Spain: most powerful king in Europe - Wealthy b/c of money coming in form colonies - Standard-Bearer of Church --> Protestants would be overcome by Catholics - Son of Charles V - Phillip married Mary Tudor - Spanish Armada 1588 - Dutch vs spaniards - revolt of dutch - Religion = vocal of revolution - Revolutionary change = religious reform; get closer to God through scripture - Revolt broke out - Phillip intervened in an active but violent way - Wanted to control patronage power of church - Alienated dutch nobility - thought spaniards taking power for themselves - William of Orange (d. 1584) - leader of Dutch - Calvinism - spoke to Dutch; saw it very relevant - Duke of Alva - violent, hanged Protestants, slaughter rebels --> oppression quieted rebellion (really: going on underground) - Spaniards sent in army to crush resurfaced rebellion - People were willing to sacrifice their property b/c they hated the Spanish: allowed flood of their territory to drive back Spanish army, who were forced to retreat - Evaporation of Spanish domination of Dutch; William of Orange became Prince - William = assassinated; son Morris became prince - Truce signed; formed a new country (which had popular ruler who represented their beliefs, one religion, one common enemy) - France - Calvinism spread widely; whole classes (lesser nobility, wealthy urban townsmen) be- came Calvinists - Guise - took control of Catholic faction - Bourbon - enemy (Calvinist/Protestant) - Guise vs. Bourbon - war was inevitable because of mutual hatred of each other - king died accidentally - Civil war - 1562 - Marie de’Medici (queen) first supported Catholics but then she realized they were too pow- erful - Then she supported Calvinists until they were too powerful; then switched to Catholics - St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre - huge massacre of Protestants - Leader of Protestants escaped alive (Henry of Navarre/Bourbon) - Guises came into power - put down Calvinism, Protestantism for good - Huguenots = French Calvinists - Henry III - elected king of Poland; when brothers all died he snuck away from his own king- dom (Polish wouldn’t let him go) and returned to France - House of Valois became extinct b/c no heirs - Would Bourbon (Calvinists) inherit the throne or Guises (Catholic)? - Had guises assassinated; he was - Henry IV (Bourbon) (1589-1610) became king --> Bourbon line (Protestant leader) - Henry converted to Catholicism but sympathetic to Calvinists - Edict of Nantes (1598) - recognized Protestants; gave Huguenots equal social etc. standing to Catholics - Allowed and supported financially Protestant churches - Les politiques = thought outside the box; convinced him to allow dual-religion state - More important to be good citizen and supportive of state; support state -- more important than religious beliefs - Monarch determined policy, he was his people, his kingdom - Recognition of Henry IV - made idea of France stronger than it ever was because religions could exist side by side - Established well-run kingdom for benefit of all citizens - France became successful - His assassination (1610) - caused kingdom to fall into disarray October 27, 2010 The English Civil War - Wars of confessional allegiance - Elizabeth I - began period of relative quiet (peace) - Edward VI - attempt to move England to Protestant (Reformation) - Mary I - attempt to make English totally Catholic - Elizabeth - very clever, able to manipulate those around her, could keep tensions down in Eng- land b/c respected by everyone - England - becoming more homogenous (speak same language, loyal to monarchy) - Benefitted because not very affected by wars in European continent - Development of gunpowder, England to dist
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