HIS242H1 27 March 2013
The Collapse of Communism
When you ask someone why something happened people tell you what happened.
They hardly tell you about the events leading up to it.
In summer of 1989 – Hungarian officials decided to open the borders between
Hungary and Austria.
Austrians and East Germans went through.
The East Germans were fuelled by this.
The Velvet Revolution (end of Communism in Czechoslovakia).
The end of the communist regime in Romania (the killing of Nicholai, the communist
dictator and his wife)
Useful to think of the collapse of communisation like the end of colonization and the
end of natzism.
The Cold War was not a military thing, but communism really was from the inside of
THE BREAKUP OF YUGOSLAVIA (1991-2003)
1989 – Collapse of the wall.
Yugoslavia was kept out of these things, but they were no exception from these
Yugoslavia was formed out of WW1.
Occupied by Germans.
Created under the independent communist Tito (d.1980)
1991 – Began to fall apart under a series of successions.
Part of the country declaring independence.
Croatia – “Witnesses” (Movie, released in 2003) made 11 years after the war.
Was controversial inside Croatia. Filmaker was criticised for trying to make an even-
Tried to show the true depiction.
2 brothers – Yoshko and Presho.
- Set in their home time.
- Their father was recently killed at the front
- The younger brother with 2 of his other buddies has come into the town and
killed a neighbour. The Neighbour was a loan shark. – They have discovered
that the dead man’s little daughter has witnessed the murder.
- The older brother now has to sort this problem out.
- There is a sense of resilience
June 1991 – The first of the republics that were considered Yugoslavia. HIS242H1 27 March 2013
Slovenia – declared independence - 10 day war – president of Yugoslavia withdrew,
and granted them independence.
Croatians declared their independence. The Yugoslavian army supported the Serb
Militia. Instead they got fighting from 1991-1992 continued. Some until 1995.
Yugoslavian’s were very mixed populations, they intermingled.
WW2 had contributed to these enclaves.
Even Tito had a Croatian and Slovene parent.
Once the war began in Croatian territory.
- Cleaned territories by removing cultures they didn’t want there and replaced
them. ETHNIC CLEANSING – popularized by the people carrying out these
acts of expulsion.
Ethnic Cleansing - The process involved a combination of killing, expulsion,
destruction of property and extreme terror to make them not want to return back to
those countries. They would rape them or decapitating and displaying body parts.
They expressed hatred and were typical of people that wanted to redraw maps.
100’s of thousands of refugees that left their homes tried to find