From India in 1947 to Mozambique gaining independence from Portugal in 1975
In the 60’s 18 New Nations in
- 14 in Africa
- 1970’s dramatic rapid change – like a new map of Africa
Decolonization in Africa
- Expansion in Africa
- Most controlled by European nations
- Gaining of independence, was not granted but fought for an won by a high cost
Fighting for the independence was like fighting in the World Wars. Involved all
elements including the population.
THE END OF EUROPEAN EMPIRES: DECOLONIZATION AND THE FIGHT FOR
Battle of Algiers, dir. Gillo Pontecorvo, 1965
WW1 – The collapse of the Ottoman empire meant colonies in Africa fell under
European holdings. Britain and France primarily.
WW1 determined the course of restoration.
Gandi’s liberation in India. (d. 1948)
The process of Decolonization really took effect after the 2 world war.
Large numbers of men in European colonial territories participated in the war.
Forced labourers too.
After the men returned from the war, they returned with the idea that they had
earned their determination of playing a role in their destiny.
They returned home with the experience of combat. This experience might have
helped them in their control of their revolt.
In Asia/ SE Asia, the Japanese took control of their territories, Westerners were
replaced by Japanese occupiers. The French or Dutch that controlled the territories
earlier had to fight to regain. The Japanese had used the language of the Asian co-
conspirators sphere. The liberation of these languages helped leave arms for the
The first declarations had come first in mainly Asia. Areas that were under Ottoman
empire. Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Vietnam (written in 1945).
- Ho Chi Minh (d. 1969) had started the declaration quoting from the American
one from 1777.
Indigenous Nationalist Movement
- Leaders in certain African countries emerged.
- Ghanean – Kwame Nkrumah (d. 1972)
o Influencing solidarity in Africans.
o Emphasizing the political and socialist solidarity
o A religious and spiritual movement
o Educated in the USA, in the 1940s, 2 BA’s, Arts and Theology
o Studied at Lincoln University (the first Black degree granting college in
o Did a Masters degree in Pennsylvania
o Continued his studies in