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History - March 13.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Jenkins

The Marshall Plan and the Division of Europe - Civil war in Greece -> Truman’s speech to US Congress (Truman Doctrine) (1947) o $400 million in economic aid for Greece (and Turkey) - Conflict not seen as regional; Truman framed it in global terms, about freedom and Soviet power o Every nation must choose between Communism and Democracy - Signals important shift in US international policy, as well as an end to Britain’s power o Britain had to step down from aid to Greece, US steps in - One main idea of doctrine that of containment - Sources of Soviet Conduct , 1948-> why the Soviet Union operates the way that it does o George Kennan o Long Telegram from Moscow, 1947 o The main element of any US policy against the Soviet Union must be a long term strategy of patient, firm, vigilant containment o Not a good idea to confront it, but by creating a belt of strong, stable states around it, it is possible to hold it in - General George Marshall o Secretary of State o Sets out plan at a commencement speech at Harvard, June 1947 o Focused on need to set the economies of Europe on a new course o Speaks about the economic situation o Aid to Europe needs to go beyond providing basic necessities, needs to be an even larger project of massive foreign aid to rebuild the economies of Europe o “The truth of the matter is that Europe’s requirements for the next three or four years of foreign food and other essential products – principally from America – are so much greater than her present ability to pay that she must have substantial additional help, or face economic, social, and political deterioration of a very grave character. . .The remedy lies in breaking the vicious circle and restoring the confidence of the European people in the economic future of their own countries and of Europe as a whole.”  Looking back to the results of the Great Depression (i.e. the rise of Fascism and Nazism)  The consequences of this continuing, especially to the US, should be apparent to all o “Our policy is directed not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. Its purpose should be the revival of a working economy in the world so as to permit the emergence of political and social conditions in which free institutions can exist.” The Marshall Plan, the Czechoslovakian Coup, - General anxiety of Marshall and others is over political radicalism (now from the Left, rather than the Right) that could arise o There is a sharp shift of elections following the war to the Left - Communist parties emerge as strong forces, especially in France and Italy o Fear of what could happen - One month following Marshall’s plan, 16 nations (OEEC) met in Paris to discuss Marshall’s Plan, the European Recovery Plan, June 1947 o Europeans themselves to administer the funds, and to carry this out in a collective fashion o ERP: $9.4 billion provided over years for the rebuilding of West
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