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Lec 1 - City Structures

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Nicholas Terpstra

HIS243 H – Lec. 1  Social structures in Early Modern Europe o Population and settlement o Urban life: city a neighbourhood o Lifecycle  Birth, childhood, adolescence  Women and marriage  Maturity and old age  Florence o Medici built two fortresses to intimidate the city rather than defend it o Tear own walls to sweep out disease; this encourages the development of highways o Florence was built in the Ancient Roman Period  Followed the typical Roman grid pattern  Built two major streets: Cardo and Decumanus o During earlier period, Pisa, Luca and Aresto more significant o Florence was a late bloomer o 1173-1175, Florence walls built out and population expands o 1284-1383,walls stretched out further to accommodate population o Population reached 120,000 – one of the largest in Europe o A few decades later, Black Death sweeps out the population, and the numbers stay low until the 1800s  Bologna o Also a Roman city, so also has Cardo and Decamanus o Second walls built in the early 14 century o Had roughly the same population as Florence and also collapsed  Belgian city Lovanium o Not a Roman city, so no grid formation o Rural settlement from the Middle Ages o Outer reaches of the city are farmland o Religious changes in the 16 century o When convents are built, the chosen location is the farmland – there is more space for larger buildings  Black Death 1348 o Long time belief that it was spread by rats but is now disputed o Starts in Italy in 1348, reaches Netherlands in 1349 o 1/3 to ½ of population killed (75,000,000 to 50,000,000) o Most cities take 150 years to recover population o Florence, Bologna, etc. take longer to recover because the cities are unhealthy o Cities grow but don’t replenish their own population – they rely on immigration o The population doesn’t grow because of a limited food supply  Population growth o When the population grows, it will grow in areas that were previously sparse, i.e., England, France, Germany but not in Italy HIS243 H – Lec. 1 o At this point, Europe is going global o At first, Europe represents 14-15% of the population; by 1820s, it was 50% - mostly in the Mediterranean areas o By 1600s, Northern Europe had 50% of Europe’s population; by 1650s,
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