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HIS263 October 9 - Seven Years War.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Bohaker/ Penfold

HIS263 October 9, 2012 The Seven Years War, 1756-63 - This war explains how we became a constitutional monarchy o Also helps to shape the US - By the 1640’s, France and England were in conflict again - War started in 1756—considered the first global war - England, Wales and Scotland have become Great Britain o One soldier in the British army for every 10 French soldiers, but their navy has 3 ships for every French ship i. Initial French Successes, 1756-1758 - Early defeats of the English, 1755 o Embarrassments for England o Close ties with those in England and those in its North American Colonies o Britain’s government firmly a constitutional government—Monarch responded to the parliament  France more absolutist o Lots of British military support in the colonies - Governor Vaudreuil’s plan of attack o Experienced working with aboriginal allies o Uses this to raid the American colonies - 1756—War breaks out in Europe, global conflict - Generals—Montcalm, Vaudreuil (generals) o Montcalm clashes with Vaudreuil o Vaudreuil works with his aboriginal allies, Montcalm finds their way of war reprehensible  In Europe, rules about captives and prisoners  In New France, allies had different rules  In some cases, they killed the prisoners  This upsets Montcalm - 1756—Montcalm’s first battle of the war—south side of Lake Ontario o 30 wounded prisoners o Montcalm used to ransoming these prisoners o Allies killed these prisoners o Considered by Montcalm an outrageous act - Montcalm also favours a defensive strategy o Vaudreuil wants a different approach, offensive strategy o Montcalm disagrees - Siege of Fort William Henry—large amount of English prisoners that the native allies kill o Montcalm and Vaudreuil in agreement that Form William Henry needed to be taken - 1756-57, Vaudreuil uses his reputation to make a massive multi-cultural army - Fort fall under siege in 5 days o Tells British troops that they will be released with full military honour o French would keep the military pieces belonging to the fort and keep it for themselves o British keep their things, French keep military fortifications, aboriginal allies keep nothing o “When I kill them, they can no longer kill me” o Montcalm and British left outraged in the killings o British so upset that later on, when the British capture New France, General Amherst denies honours to the French and wants to eradicate first nations people o This illustrates the culture clashes going on in the midst of the conflict ii. The Tide Turns, 1758-1764 - After Fort William Henry, the tide begins to turn in favour of the British - William Pitt and diverging forces o Pitt becomes prime minister of Britain o Gives additional troops to the Br
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